Early Changes in Androgen Levels in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal SwiSCI Study.

Itodo, Oche Adam; Raguindin, Peter Francis; Wöllner, Jens; Eriks-Hoogland, Inge; Jordan, Xavier; Hund-Georgiadis, Margret; Muka, Taulant; Pannek, Jürgen; Stoyanov, Jivko; Glisic, Marija (2022). Early Changes in Androgen Levels in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal SwiSCI Study. Journal of clinical medicine, 11(21), p. 6559. MDPI 10.3390/jcm11216559

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We aimed to explore longitudinal changes in androgen levels in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) within initial inpatient rehabilitation stay and identify clinical/injury characteristics associated with hormone levels. Linear regression analysis was applied to explore the association between personal/injury characteristics and androgen hormones (total testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S)) at admission to rehabilitation. Longitudinal changes in androgen levels were studied using linear mixed models. Analyses were stratified by sex and by injury type. We included 70 men and 16 women with SCI. We observed a non-linear association between age, time since injury, and androgens at baseline. At admission to initial rehabilitation, mature serum SHBG (full-length, protein form which lacks the N-terminal signaling peptide) was higher, while DHEA and DHEA-S were lower among opioid users vs. non-users. Serum levels of total testosterone and DHEA-S increased over rehabilitation period [β 3.96 (95%CI 1.37, 6.56), p = 0.003] and [β 1.77 (95%CI 0.73, 2.81), p = 0.01], respectively. We observed no significant changes in other androgens. Restricting our analysis to men with traumatic injury did not materially change our findings. During first inpatient rehabilitation over a median follow up of 5.6 months, we observed an increase in total testosterone and DHEA-S in men with SCI. Future studies need to explore whether these hormonal changes influence neurological and functional recovery as well as metabolic parameters during initial rehabilitation stay.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Health Sciences (GHS)

UniBE Contributor:

Itodo, Oche Adam, Raguindin, Peter Francis, Muka, Taulant, Stoyanov, Jivko, Glisic, Marija


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

16 Nov 2022 08:58

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 16:28

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

androgens dehydroepiandrosterone dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate rehabilitation sex hormone-binding globulin spinal cord injury testosterone





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