Advances in machine learning applications for cardiovascular 4D flow MRI

Peper, Eva S; van Ooij, Pim; Jung, Bernd; Huber, Adrian; Gräni, Christoph; Bastiaansen, Jessica A M (2022). Advances in machine learning applications for cardiovascular 4D flow MRI. Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 9, p. 1052068. Frontiers 10.3389/fcvm.2022.1052068

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Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved as a non-invasive imaging technique to visualize and quantify blood flow in the heart and vessels. Hemodynamic parameters derived from 4D flow MRI, such as net flow and peak velocities, but also kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, viscous energy loss, and wall shear stress have shown to be of diagnostic relevance for cardiovascular diseases. 4D flow MRI, however, has several limitations. Its long acquisition times and its limited spatio-temporal resolutions lead to inaccuracies in velocity measurements in small and low-flow vessels and near the vessel wall. Additionally, 4D flow MRI requires long post-processing times, since inaccuracies due to the measurement process need to be corrected for and parameter quantification requires 2D and 3D contour drawing. Several machine learning (ML) techniques have been proposed to overcome these limitations. Existing scan acceleration methods have been extended using ML for image reconstruction and ML based super-resolution methods have been used to assimilate high-resolution computational fluid dynamic simulations and 4D flow MRI, which leads to more realistic velocity results. ML efforts have also focused on the automation of other post-processing steps, by learning phase corrections and anti-aliasing. To automate contour drawing and 3D segmentation, networks such as the U-Net have been widely applied. This review summarizes the latest ML advances in 4D flow MRI with a focus on technical aspects and applications. It is divided into the current status of fast and accurate 4D flow MRI data generation, ML based post-processing tools for phase correction and vessel delineation and the statistical evaluation of blood flow.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Faculty Institutions > sitem Center for Translational Medicine and Biomedical Entrepreneurship
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Cardiology

UniBE Contributor:

Peper, Eva Sophia, Jung, Bernd, Huber, Adrian Thomas, Gräni, Christoph, Bastiaansen, Jessica


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Maria de Fatima Henriques Bernardo

Date Deposited:

14 Dec 2022 07:49

Last Modified:

30 Jan 2024 14:50

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