Long non-coding RNAs: definitions, functions, challenges and recommendations.

Mattick, John S; Amaral, Paulo P; Carninci, Piero; Carpenter, Susan; Chang, Howard Y; Chen, Ling-Ling; Chen, Runsheng; Dean, Caroline; Dinger, Marcel E; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Gingeras, Thomas R; Guttman, Mitchell; Hirose, Tetsuro; Huarte, Maite; Johnson, Rory; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar; Kapranov, Philipp; Lawrence, Jeanne B; Lee, Jeannie T; Mendell, Joshua T; ... (2023). Long non-coding RNAs: definitions, functions, challenges and recommendations. Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology, 24(6), pp. 430-447. Springer Nature 10.1038/s41580-022-00566-8

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Genes specifying long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) occupy a large fraction of the genomes of complex organisms. The term 'lncRNAs' encompasses RNA polymerase I (Pol I), Pol II and Pol III transcribed RNAs, and RNAs from processed introns. The various functions of lncRNAs and their many isoforms and interleaved relationships with other genes make lncRNA classification and annotation difficult. Most lncRNAs evolve more rapidly than protein-coding sequences, are cell type specific and regulate many aspects of cell differentiation and development and other physiological processes. Many lncRNAs associate with chromatin-modifying complexes, are transcribed from enhancers and nucleate phase separation of nuclear condensates and domains, indicating an intimate link between lncRNA expression and the spatial control of gene expression during development. lncRNAs also have important roles in the cytoplasm and beyond, including in the regulation of translation, metabolism and signalling. lncRNAs often have a modular structure and are rich in repeats, which are increasingly being shown to be relevant to their function. In this Consensus Statement, we address the definition and nomenclature of lncRNAs and their conservation, expression, phenotypic visibility, structure and functions. We also discuss research challenges and provide recommendations to advance the understanding of the roles of lncRNAs in development, cell biology and disease.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Medical Oncology

UniBE Contributor:

Johnson, Rory Baldwin


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Springer Nature




Rebeka Gerber

Date Deposited:

24 Jan 2023 09:12

Last Modified:

26 May 2023 00:12

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