Activity Measurement of 44Sc and Calibration of Activity Measurement Instruments on Production Sites and Clinics.

Juget, Frederic; Durán, Teresa; Nedjadi, Youcef; Talip, Zeynep; Grundler, Pascal V; Favaretto, Chiara; Casolaro, Pierluigi; Dellepiane, Gaia; Braccini, Saverio; Bailat, Claude; van der Meulen, Nicholas P (2023). Activity Measurement of 44Sc and Calibration of Activity Measurement Instruments on Production Sites and Clinics. Molecules, 28(3) Molecular Diversity Preservation International MDPI 10.3390/molecules28031345

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44Sc is a promising radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) in nuclear medicine. As a part of the implementation of a production site for 44Sc, precise knowledge of the activity of the product is necessary. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Bern (UniBE), 44Sc is produced by enriched 44CaO-target irradiation with a cyclotron. The two sites use different techniques for activity measurement, namely a dose calibrator at the PSI and a gamma-ray spectrometry system at UniBE and PSI. In this work, the 44Sc was produced at the PSI, and samples of the product were prepared in dedicated containers for onsite measurements at PSI, UniBE, and the Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA) in Lausanne for precise activity measurement using primary techniques and for the calibration of the reference ionization chambers. An accuracy of 1% was obtained for the activity measurement, allowing for a precise calibration of the dose calibrator and gamma-ray spectrometry of the two production sites. Each production site now has the capability of measuring 44Sc activity with an accuracy of 2%.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP)
10 Strategic Research Centers > Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics (AEC)

UniBE Contributor:

Casolaro, Pierluigi, Dellepiane, Gaia, Braccini, Saverio


500 Science > 530 Physics




Molecular Diversity Preservation International MDPI




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

13 Feb 2023 13:30

Last Modified:

13 Feb 2023 23:27

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Sc-44 production dose calibrator medical cyclotron positron emission tomography precise activity measurement precise instruments calibration γ-ray spectrometry




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