A Combined Approach for Detection of Ovine Small Ruminant Retrovirus Co-Infections.

Rosato, Giuliana; Abril, Carlos; Hilbe, Monika; Seehusen, Frauke (2023). A Combined Approach for Detection of Ovine Small Ruminant Retrovirus Co-Infections. Viruses, 15(2) Molecular Diversity Preservation International MDPI 10.3390/v15020376

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Jaagsiekte retrovirus (JSRV)-induced ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is an important ovine respiratory disease in Switzerland. Furthermore, ovine lungs with OPA frequently exhibited lesions suggestive of maedi-visna virus (MVV) or caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection, indicating that co-morbidities might occur. Lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes were sampled from suspected OPA cases, inflammatory lung lesions and control lungs (total of 110 cases). Tissues were (a) processed for histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and (b) underwent DNA extraction and real-time PCR for JSRV, MVV and CAEV. Peptide sequences were used to generate virus-specific customized polyclonal antibodies. PCR-positive OPA cases and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded MVV- and CAEV-infected synovial cell pellets served as positive controls. Fifty-two lungs were histologically diagnosed with OPA. Histological evidence of MVV/CAEV infection was detected in 25 lungs. JSRV was detected by PCR in 84% of the suspected OPA cases; six were co-infected with MVV and one with CAEV. MVV was detected by PCR in 14 cases, and four lungs were positive for CAEV. Three lungs had MVV/CAEV co-infection. In IHC, JSRV was detected in 91% of the PCR-positive cases, whereas MVV and CAEV immunoreactivity was seen in all PCR-positive lungs. Although PCR showed a higher sensitivity compared to IHC, the combined approach allows for investigations on viral cell tropism and pathogenic processes in co-morbidities, including their potential interdependency. Furthermore, an immunohistochemical tool for specific differentiation of MVV and/or CAEV infection was implemented.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Virology and Immunology

UniBE Contributor:

Abril Gaona, Carlos


600 Technology > 630 Agriculture




Molecular Diversity Preservation International MDPI




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

02 Mar 2023 11:46

Last Modified:

03 Mar 2023 14:54

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

CAEV JSRV MVV co-infections diagnostic ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) viral cell tropism





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