Interaction of the solar wind with them Moon: An overview on the results from the SARA experiment aboard Chandrayaan-1

Bhardwaj, Anil; Dhanya, M. B.; Sridharan, R.; Barabasch, Stats; Yoshifumi, Futaana; Wieser, Martin; Holmström, Mats; Lue, Charles; Wurz, Peter; Schaufelberger, Audrey; Asamura, Kazushi (2012). Interaction of the solar wind with them Moon: An overview on the results from the SARA experiment aboard Chandrayaan-1. In: Bhardwaj, Anil; Yau, Andrew (eds.) Planetary Science and Solar & Terrestrial Science. Advances in Geosciences: Vol. 30 (pp. 35-55). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company 10.1142/9789814405744_0004

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The results from the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) experiment onboard Chandrayaan-1 have revealed several hitherto unknown and interesting aspects about the interaction of solar wind with the Moon. The SARA experiment had two sensors — CENA and SWIM. The Chandrayaan-1 energetic neutrals analyzer (CENA), detected energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), and the Solar Wind Monitor (SWIM) measured ions of solar wind origin. In this review, we summarize the observations made by the SARA experiment, which are: (1) substantial (~20%) and sustained backscattering of solar wind protons from lunar surface as energetic neutral hydrogen,1 (2) minimagnetosphere around magnetic anomalies on Moon using the backscattered ENAs,2 (3) reflection of solar wind protons from the Moon surface,3 (4) huge (~50%) deflection of solar wind protons over strong magnetic anomalies,4 and (5) presence of protons in the near-lunar plasma wake.5 These results have implications on the lunar plasma environment, implantation of solar wind hydrogen on lunar surface, and behavior of small scale magnetic anomalies on planetary bodies. The SARA observations suggest that similar processes may happen on other airless bodies covered with regolith in the solar system as well as in extra-solar system. This paper presents a review of the results obtained from the SARA observation.

Item Type:

Book Section (Book Chapter)


08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute

UniBE Contributor:

Wurz, Peter and Vorburger, Audrey Helena


500 Science > 530 Physics




Advances in Geosciences


World Scientific Publishing Company




Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:44

Last Modified:

28 Nov 2020 02:21

Publisher DOI:




URI: (FactScience: 226012)

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