Exploring the association between precipitation and hospital admission for mental disorders in Switzerland between 2009 and 2019.

Lee, Sujung; Salvador, Coral; Tuel, Alexandre; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria (2023). Exploring the association between precipitation and hospital admission for mental disorders in Switzerland between 2009 and 2019. PLoS ONE, 18(4), e0283200. Public Library of Science 10.1371/journal.pone.0283200

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While several studies proved the relationship between increasing temperatures and poor mental health, limited evidence exists on the effect of other weather factors, such as precipitation. This study assessed the impact of precipitation on hospital admissions for mental disorders in Switzerland between 2009-2019. We defined different precipitation events based on the duration (daily precipitation ≥1mm for 2, 3, or 4 days; PP.2/PP.3/PP.4) and intensity (≥90th percentile for 2 consecutive days; PEP90.2). First, we conducted aggregated time-stratified case-crossover analysis in eight main Swiss cities with distributed lag models to assess the association up to 3 days after the exposure. Then, we pooled the estimates in each city using a multivariate random effects meta-analysis for all hospital admissions and by subgroups (sex, age, diagnosis). Evidence of an association between precipitation and hospital admission for mental disorders was not found in Switzerland (PP.2: 1.003[0.978-1.029]; PP.3: 1.005[0.985-1.026]; PP.4: 0.994[0.960-1.030]; PEP90.2: 1.000[0.953-1.050]). Although the results were highly uncertain, we found an indication of increasing risks of hospital admission with increasing intensity of precipitation in warmer seasons (PP.2: 1.001[0.971-1.032] vs PEP90.2: 1.014[0.955-1.078]), while the risks of hospital admission slightly increased by the duration in colder season (PP.2: 1.009[0.981-1.039]; PP.3: 1.008[0.980-1.036]; PP.4: 1.017[0.956-1.081]). Overall, risks tend to be higher in people aged < 65 years. Duration of the events may influence more than intensity in females, while opposite patterns were observed in males. Risks tended to be larger but still uncertain for schizophrenia, mood disorders, and adult personality disorders. An indication of a negative association was found in neurotic disorders and null risks in the remaining groups. Although our findings did not show a clear association between precipitation and mental disorders, further research is required to clarify the role of precipitation and the potential implications of climate change and extreme precipitation events on mental health.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)
10 Strategic Research Centers > Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR)
08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geography

UniBE Contributor:

Lee, Sujung, Salvador Gimeno, Coral, Tuel, Alexandre, Vicedo Cabrera, Ana Maria


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services
500 Science > 550 Earth sciences & geology
900 History > 910 Geography & travel




Public Library of Science




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

25 Apr 2023 11:07

Last Modified:

03 May 2023 14:12

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