Thermodynamic model of MSWI flue gas cooling path: Effect of flue gas composition on heavy metal binding forms.

Wolffers, Mirjam; Kulik, Dmitrii A; Miron, George-Dan; Eggenberger, Urs; Churakov, Sergey V (2023). Thermodynamic model of MSWI flue gas cooling path: Effect of flue gas composition on heavy metal binding forms. (In Press). Waste management & research, 734242X231178213. Sage 10.1177/0734242X231178213

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In the context of circular economy and heavy metal (HM) recovery from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash (FA), detailed knowledge of HM binding forms is required for achieving higher extraction rates. The FA mineralogy is still poorly understood due to its low grain size and low metal concentration. To investigate the HM binding forms, a sophisticated thermodynamic reactive transport model was developed to simulate ash-forming processes. The stability of different binding forms was investigated at different flue gas conditions (varying ratios of HCl, SO2, O2) by simulating the gas cooling path in closed system and dynamic open system, where the gas composition is changing upon cooling due to precipitation of solids. The simulations predict that at flue gas conditions of molar ratio S/Cl < 1, Cu and Zn precipitate as oxides (and Zn silicates) at approximately 650°C. At temperatures <300°C, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd are predicted to precipitate as easily soluble chlorides. In flue gas with molar ratio S/Cl > 1, the HM precipitate as less soluble sulphates. The results indicate that the less soluble HM fraction in the electrostatic precipitator ash represent oxides and silicates that formed in the boiler section but were transported to the electrostatic precipitator. The model provides insight into the physical-chemical processes controlling the metal accumulation in the flue gas and FA during the cooling of the flue gas. The obtained data serve as valuable basis for improving metal recovery from MSWI FA.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geological Sciences > Mineralogy
08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geological Sciences

UniBE Contributor:

Wolffers, Mirjam, Eggenberger, Urs, Churakov, Sergey


500 Science > 550 Earth sciences & geology
500 Science > 540 Chemistry








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

15 Jun 2023 08:37

Last Modified:

16 Jun 2023 00:16

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Uncontrolled Keywords:

Gibbs energy minimization MSWI fly ash box–flux model circular economy flue gas geochemical thermodynamic modelling heavy metal binding form heavy metal recovery




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