Mitral valve regurgitation assessed by intraventricular CMR 4D-flow: a systematic review on the technological aspects and potential clinical applications.

Safarkhanlo, Yasaman; Jung, Bernd; Bernhard, Benedikt; Peper, Eva S; Kwong, Raymond Y; Bastiaansen, Jessica A M; Gräni, Christoph (2023). Mitral valve regurgitation assessed by intraventricular CMR 4D-flow: a systematic review on the technological aspects and potential clinical applications. The international journal of cardiovascular imaging, 39(10), pp. 1963-1977. Springer 10.1007/s10554-023-02893-z

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Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) four-dimensional (4D) flow is a novel method for flow quantification potentially helpful in management of mitral valve regurgitation (MVR). In this systematic review, we aimed to depict the clinical role of intraventricular 4D-flow in MVR. The reproducibility, technical aspects, and comparison against conventional techniques were evaluated. Published studies on SCOPUS, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were included using search terms on 4D-flow CMR in MVR. Out of 420 screened articles, 18 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. All studies (n = 18, 100%) assessed MVR using 4D-flow intraventricular annular inflow (4D-flowAIM) method, which calculates the regurgitation by subtracting the aortic forward flow from the mitral forward flow. Thereof, 4D-flow jet quantification (4D-flowjet) was assessed in 5 (28%), standard 2D phase-contrast (2D-PC) flow imaging in 8 (44%) and the volumetric method (the deviation of left ventricle stroke volume and right ventricular stroke volume) in 2 (11%) studies. Inter-method correlations among the 4 MVR quantification methods were heterogeneous across studies, ranging from moderate to excellent correlations. Two studies compared 4D-flowAIM to echocardiography with moderate correlation. In 12 (63%) studies the reproducibility of 4D-flow techniques in quantifying MVR was studied. Thereof, 9 (75%) studies investigated the reproducibility of the 4D-flowAIM method and the majority (n = 7, 78%) reported good to excellent intra- and inter-reader reproducibility. Intraventricular 4D-flowAIM provides high reproducibility with heterogeneous correlations to conventional quantification methods. Due to the absence of a gold standard and unknown accuracies, future longitudinal outcome studies are needed to assess the clinical value of 4D-flow in the clinical setting of MVR.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Faculty Institutions > sitem Center for Translational Medicine and Biomedical Entrepreneurship
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Cardiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Safarkhanlo, Yasaman, Jung, Bernd, Bernhard, Benedikt, Peper, Eva Sophia, Bastiaansen, Jessica, Gräni, Christoph


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








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Date Deposited:

16 Jun 2023 16:02

Last Modified:

30 Jan 2024 15:41

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Uncontrolled Keywords:

4D-flow Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging Mitral valve regurgitation




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