Eye-movements in endoscopic ear surgery: Comparison of 2D and 3D endoscopes.

Niederhauser, Laura; Anschütz, Lukas; Wimmer, Wilhelm; Yacoub, Abraam; Weibel, David; Mast, Fred; Caversaccio, Marco (2019). Eye-movements in endoscopic ear surgery: Comparison of 2D and 3D endoscopes. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 12(7), p. 204. Bern Open Publishing

Examination of surgeons' eye motions showed that gaze patterns differ between levels of expertise and various kinds of tasks (Hermens, Flin, & Ahmed, 2013). However, little research has looked into differences between visualization techniques, such as endoscopes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare eye- movements of ear surgeons operating with an established 2-dimensional endoscope and a relatively new 3-dimensional endoscope. Sixteen participants performed two kinds of simulated ear surgery on a cadavric specimen, once with a 2D endoscope and once with a 3D endoscope. Thus, all subjects (5 specialists and 11 residents) performed four surgeries in total. The order of the surgeries was randomized and participants were wearing eye-tracking glasses at all times (SMI, Berlin, Germany). Results showed that fixation duration differed significantly between the two surgical tasks. Whereas this difference was the same for residents in 2D and 3D, it increased for specialists using the 2D endoscope. Thus, specialists had longer fixation durations while performing the surgical task with a 2D endoscope, yet they could not apply the same gaze strategy with the 3D endoscope. This suggests that even well adapted specialists require a learning curve when adopting a new technology.

Item Type:

Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Cognitive Psychology, Perception and Methodology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders (ENT)
10 Strategic Research Centers > ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research > ARTORG Center - Hearing Research Laboratory

UniBE Contributor:

Niederhauser, Laura, Anschütz, Lukas Peter, Wimmer, Wilhelm, Yacoub, Abraam, Weibel, David, Mast, Fred, Caversaccio, Marco


100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Bern Open Publishing




David Weibel

Date Deposited:

05 Jul 2023 10:06

Last Modified:

31 Jul 2023 14:26



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