Cross-section measurement of thulium radioisotopes with an 18 MeV medical PET cyclotron for an optimized 165Er production.

Dellepiane, Gaia; Casolaro, Pierluigi; Favaretto, Chiara; Gottstein, Alexander; Grundler, Pascal V; Mateu, Isidre; Renaldin, Edoardo; Scampoli, Paola; Talip, Zeynep; van der Meulen, Nicholas P; Braccini, Saverio (2023). Cross-section measurement of thulium radioisotopes with an 18 MeV medical PET cyclotron for an optimized 165Er production. Applied radiation and isotopes, 200(110954), p. 110954. Elsevier 10.1016/j.apradiso.2023.110954

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165Er is a pure Auger-electron emitter with promising characteristics for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. The short penetration path and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of the emitted Auger electrons make 165Er particularly suitable for treating small tumor metastases. Several production methods based on the irradiation with charged particles of Er and Ho targets can be found in the literature. In this paper, we report on the study of 165Er indirect production performed via the 166Er(p,2n)165Tm →165Er reaction at the 18 MeV Bern medical cyclotron. Despite the use of highly enriched 166Er2O3 targets, several Tm radioisotopes are produced during the irradiation, making the knowledge of the cross sections involved crucial. For this reason, a precise investigation of the cross sections of the relevant nuclear reactions in the energy range of interest was performed by irradiating Er2O3 targets with different isotopic enrichment levels and using a method based on the inversion of a linear system of equations. For the reactions 164Er(p, γ)165Tm, 166Er(p,n)166Tm, 166Er(p, γ)167Tm, 167Er(p,3n)165Tm, 167Er(p, γ)168Tm, 168Er(p,2n)167Tm and 170Er(p,3n)168Tm, the nuclear cross section was measured for the first time. From the results obtained, the production yield and purity of the parent radioisotope 165Tm were calculated to assess the optimal irradiation conditions. Several production tests with solid targets were performed to confirm these findings.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP)
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
10 Strategic Research Centers > Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics (AEC)

UniBE Contributor:

Dellepiane, Gaia, Casolaro, Pierluigi, Gottstein, Alexander Leonard, Mateu Suau, Isidro, Scampoli, Paola, Braccini, Saverio


500 Science > 530 Physics








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

02 Aug 2023 14:33

Last Modified:

05 Sep 2023 00:17

Publisher DOI:


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Uncontrolled Keywords:

Auger electrons Cross sections Erbium-165 Medical cyclotron Proton irradiation Solid targets Targeted radionuclide therapy




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