EULAR recommendations for the use of imaging in large vessel vasculitis in clinical practice: 2023 update.

Dejaco, Christian; Ramiro, Sofia; Bond, Milena; Bosch, Philipp; Ponte, Cristina; Mackie, Sarah Louise; Bley, Thorsten A; Blockmans, Daniel; Brolin, Sara; Bolek, Ertugrul Cagri; Cassie, Rebecca; Cid, Maria C; Molina-Collada, Juan; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Nielsen, Berit Dalsgaard; De Miguel, Eugenio; Direskeneli, Haner; Duftner, Christina; Hočevar, Alojzija; Molto, Anna; ... (2024). EULAR recommendations for the use of imaging in large vessel vasculitis in clinical practice: 2023 update. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 83(6), pp. 741-751. BMJ Publishing Group 10.1136/ard-2023-224543

[img] Text
ard-2023-224543.full.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to registered users only
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.
Author holds Copyright

Download (888kB) | Request a copy


To update the EULAR recommendations for the use of imaging modalities in primary large vessel vasculitis (LVV).


A systematic literature review update was performed to retrieve new evidence on ultrasound, MRI, CT and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for diagnosis, monitoring and outcome prediction in LVV. The task force consisted of 24 physicians, health professionals and patients from 14 countries. The recommendations were updated based on evidence and expert opinion, iterating until voting indicated consensus. The level of agreement was determined by anonymous votes.


Three overarching principles and eight recommendations were agreed. Compared to the 2018 version, ultrasound is now recommended as first-line imaging test in all patients with suspected giant cell arteritis, and axillary arteries should be included in the standard examination. As an alternative to ultrasound, cranial and extracranial arteries can be examined by FDG-PET or MRI. For Takayasu arteritis, MRI is the preferred imaging modality; FDG-PET, CT or ultrasound are alternatives. Although imaging is not routinely recommended for follow-up, ultrasound, FDG-PET or MRI may be used for assessing vessel abnormalities in LVV patients with suspected relapse, particularly when laboratory markers of inflammation are unreliable. MR-angiography, CT-angiography or ultrasound may be used for long-term monitoring of structural damage, particularly at sites of preceding vascular inflammation.


The 2023 EULAR recommendations provide up-to-date guidance for the role of imaging in the diagnosis and assessment of patients with LVV.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Dermatology, Urology, Rheumatology, Nephrology, Osteoporosis (DURN) > Clinic of Rheumatology and Immunology

UniBE Contributor:

Seitz, Luca Fabio


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




BMJ Publishing Group




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

08 Aug 2023 11:10

Last Modified:

17 May 2024 00:11

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Giant Cell Arteritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Ultrasonography




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback