Metformin Overcomes the Consequences of NKX3.1 Loss to Suppress Prostate Cancer Progression.

Papachristodoulou, Alexandros; Heidegger, Isabel; Virk, Renu K; Di Bernardo, Matteo; Kim, Jaime Y; Laplaca, Caroline; Picech, Florencia; Schäfer, Georg; De Castro, Guarionex Joel; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Loda, Massimo; Klocker, Helmut; Rubin, Mark A; Zheng, Tian; Benson, Mitchell C; McKiernan, James M; Dutta, Aditya; Abate-Shen, Cory (2023). Metformin Overcomes the Consequences of NKX3.1 Loss to Suppress Prostate Cancer Progression. (In Press). European urology Elsevier 10.1016/j.eururo.2023.07.016

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BACKGROUND

The antidiabetic drug metformin has known anticancer effects related to its antioxidant activity; however, its clinical benefit for prostate cancer (PCa) has thus far been inconclusive. Here, we investigate whether the efficacy of metformin in PCa is related to the expression status of NKX3.1, a prostate-specific homeobox gene that functions in mitochondria to protect the prostate from aberrant oxidative stress.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the relationship of NKX3.1 expression and metformin efficacy in PCa.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

Functional studies were performed in vivo and in vitro in genetically engineered mouse models and human LNCaP cells, and organotypic cultures having normal or reduced/absent levels of NKX3.1. Correlative studies were performed using two independent retrospective tissue microarray cohorts of radical prostatectomies and a retrospective cohort of prostate biopsies from patients on active surveillance.

INTERVENTION

Metformin was administered before or after the induction of oxidative stress by treatment with paraquat.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Functional endpoints included analyses of histopathology, tumorigenicity, and mitochondrial function. Correlative endpoints include Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS

Metformin reversed the adverse consequences of NKX3.1 deficiency following oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro, as evident by reduced tumorigenicity and restored mitochondrial function. Patients with low NKX3.1 expression showed a significant clinical benefit from taking metformin.

CONCLUSIONS

Metformin can overcome the adverse consequences of NKX3.1 loss for PCa progression by protecting against oxidative stress and promoting normal mitochondrial function. These functional activities and clinical correlates were observed only with low NKX3.1 expression. Thus, the clinical benefit of metformin in PCa may depend on the status of NKX3.1 expression.

PATIENT SUMMARY

Prostate cancer patients with low NKX3.1 are likely to benefit most from metformin treatment to delay disease progression in a precision interception paradigm.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR)

UniBE Contributor:

Rubin, Mark Andrew

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0302-2838

Publisher:

Elsevier

Language:

English

Submitter:

Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

04 Sep 2023 09:07

Last Modified:

05 Sep 2023 15:44

Publisher DOI:

10.1016/j.eururo.2023.07.016

PubMed ID:

37659962

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Metformin Mitochondria NKX3.1 Oxidative stress Precision medicine Prostate cancer

BORIS DOI:

10.48350/186004

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/186004

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