Tissue S100/calgranulin expression and blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in prostatic disorders in dogs.

Weinekötter, Jana; Gurtner, Corinne; Protschka, Martina; von Bomhard, Wolf; Böttcher, Denny; Alber, Gottfried; Kiefer, Ingmar; Steiner, Joerg M; Seeger, Johannes; Heilmann, Romy M (2023). Tissue S100/calgranulin expression and blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in prostatic disorders in dogs. BMC veterinary research, 19(1), p. 234. BioMed Central 10.1186/s12917-023-03792-0

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Prostatic carcinoma (PCA) is a rare but severe condition in dogs that is similar to the androgen-independent form of PCA in men. In contrast to humans, PCA is difficult to diagnose in dogs as reliable biomarkers, available for PCA screening in human medicine, are currently lacking in small animal oncology. Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) and S100A12 are Ca2+-binding proteins of the innate immune system with promising potential to distinguish malignant from benign urogenital tract conditions, similar to the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR). However, both have not yet been extensively investigated in dogs with PCA. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the expression of the S100/calgranulins (calprotectin, S100A12, and their ratio [Cal-ratio]) in prostatic biopsies from nine dogs with PCA and compare them to those in dogs with benign prostatic lesions (eight dogs with prostatitis and ten dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia [BPH]) as well as five healthy controls. In addition, blood NLRs were investigated in twelve dogs with PCA and 22 dogs with benign prostatic conditions.


Tissue S100A8/A9+ cell counts did not differ significantly between tissue from PCA and prostatitis cases (P = 0.0659) but were significantly higher in dogs with prostatitis than BPH (P = 0.0013) or controls (P = 0.0033). S100A12+ cell counts were significantly lower in PCA tissues than in prostatitis tissue (P = 0.0458) but did not differ compared to BPH tissue (P = 0.6499) or tissue from controls (P = 0.0622). Cal-ratios did not differ significantly among the groups but were highest in prostatitis tissues and significantly higher in those dogs with poor prostatitis outcomes than in patients that were still alive at the end of the study (P = 0.0455). Blood NLR strongly correlated with prostatic tissue S100A8/A9+ cell counts in dogs with PCA (ρ = 0.81, P = 0.0499) but did not differ among the disease groups of dogs.


This study suggests that the S100/calgranulins play a role in malignant (PCA) and benign (prostatic inflammation) prostatic conditions and supports previous results in lower urinary tract conditions in dogs. These molecules might be linked to the inflammatory environment with potential effects on the inflammasome. The blood NLR does not appear to aid in distinguishing prostatic conditions in dogs. Further investigation of the S100/calgranulin pathways and their role in modulation of tumor development, progression, and metastasis in PCA is warranted.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Animal Pathology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP)

UniBE Contributor:

Gurtner, Corinne


600 Technology > 630 Agriculture




BioMed Central




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

13 Nov 2023 15:01

Last Modified:

26 Nov 2023 02:26

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Benign prostate hyperplasia Biomarker Calprotectin Diagnostic accuracy Prostatic carcinoma Prostatitis S100A12 S100A8/A9





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