Who Let the Dogs Out? Unmasking the Neglected: A Semi-Systematic Review on the Enduring Impact of Toxocariasis, a Prevalent Zoonotic Infection.

Henke, Katrin; Ntovas, Sotirios; Xourgia, Eleni; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta; Ziaka, Mairi (2023). Who Let the Dogs Out? Unmasking the Neglected: A Semi-Systematic Review on the Enduring Impact of Toxocariasis, a Prevalent Zoonotic Infection. International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(21) MDPI 10.3390/ijerph20216972

ijerph-20-06972.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY).

Download (1MB) | Preview

Toxocariasis remains an important neglected parasitic infection representing one of the most common zoonotic infections caused by the parasite Toxocara canis or, less frequently, by Toxocara cati. The epidemiology of the disease is complex due to its transmission route by accidental ingestion of embryonated Toxocara eggs or larvae from tissues from domestic or wild paratenic hosts. Even though the World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control classified toxocariasis amongst the top six parasitic infections of priority to public health, global epidemiological data regarding the relationship between seropositivity and toxocariasis is limited. Although the vast majority of the infected individuals remain asymptomatic or experience a mild disease, the infection is associated with important health and socioeconomic consequences, particularly in underprivileged, tropical, and subtropical areas. Toxocariasis is a disease with multiple clinical presentations, which are classified into five distinct forms: the classical visceral larva migrans, ocular toxocariasis, common toxocariasis, covert toxocariasis, and cerebral toxocariasis or neurotoxocariasis. Anthelmintic agents, for example, albendazole or mebendazole, are the recommended treatment, whereas a combination with topical or systemic corticosteroids for specific forms is suggested. Prevention strategies include educational programs, behavioral and hygienic changes, enhancement of the role of veterinarians, and anthelmintic regimens to control active infections.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Anaesthesiology (DINA) > University Emergency Center
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Heart Surgery
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gastro-intestinal, Liver and Lung Disorders (DMLL) > Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Ntovas, Sotirios, Xourgia, Eleni, Exadaktylos, Aristomenis, Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

14 Nov 2023 15:58

Last Modified:

27 Feb 2024 14:27

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Albendazole Toxocara canis Toxocara cati parasitic infection toxocariasis visceral larva migrans





Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback