Assessing intravascular volume by difference in pulse pressure in pigs submitted to graded hemorrhage

Pestel, Gunther J; Hiltebrand, Luzius B; Fukui, Kimiko; Cohen, Delphine; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea M (2006). Assessing intravascular volume by difference in pulse pressure in pigs submitted to graded hemorrhage. Shock, 26(4), pp. 391-5. Hagerstown, Md.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10.1097/01.shk.0000228792.10550.ed

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We assessed changes in intravascular volume monitored by difference in pulse pressure (dPP%) after stepwise hemorrhage in an experimental pig model. Six pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized (isoflurane 1.5 vol%) and mechanically ventilated to keep end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) at 35 mmHg. A PA-catheter and an arterial catheter were placed via femoral access. During and after surgery, animals received lactated Ringer's solution as long as they were considered volume responders (dPP>13%). Then animals were allowed to stabilize from the induction of anesthesia and insertion of catheters for 30 min. After stabilization, baseline measurements were taken. Five percent of blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5%, and then in 10%-increments until death from exsanguination occurred. After withdrawal of 5% of blood volume, all pigs were considered volume responders (dPP>13%); dPP rose significantly from 6.1+/-3.3% to 19.4+/-4.2%. The regression analysis of stepwise hemorrhage revealed a linear relation between blood loss (hemorrhage in %) and dPP (y=0.99*x+14; R2=0.7764; P<.0001). In addition, dPP was the only parameter that changed significantly between baseline and a blood loss of 5% (P<0.01), whereas cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, MAP, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, and systemic vascular resistance, respectively, remained unchanged. We conclude that in an experimental hypovolemic pig model, dPP correlates well with blood loss.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Anaesthesiology (DINA) > Clinic and Policlinic for Anaesthesiology and Pain Therapy

UniBE Contributor:

Pestel, Gunther Jürgen; Hiltebrand, Luzius; Fukui, Kimiko and Kurz, Andrea






Lippincott Williams & Wilkins




Jeannie Wurz

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:46

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:14

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Web of Science ID:


URI: (FactScience: 1537)

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