Time for "code ICH"? - Workflow metrics of hyperacute treatments and outcome in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage.

Bettschen, Eva; Siepen, Bernhard M.; Goeldlin, Martina B.; Mueller, Madlaine; Buecke, Philipp; Prange, Ulrike; Meinel, Thomas R.; Drop, Boudewijn RH; Bervini, David; Dobrocky, Tomas; Kaesmacher, Johannes; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.; Sauter, Thomas C.; Volbers, Bastian; Arnold, Marcel; Jung, Simon; Fischer, Urs; Z'Graggen, Werner; Seiffge, David J. (2024). Time for "code ICH"? - Workflow metrics of hyperacute treatments and outcome in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. (In Press). Cerebrovascular diseases Karger 10.1159/000536099

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Knowledge about uptake and workflow metrics of hyperacute treatments in patients with non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in the emergency department are scarce.


Single centre retrospective study of consecutive patients with ICH between 01/2018-08/2020. We assessed uptake and workflow metrics of acute therapies overall and according to referral mode (stroke code, transfer from other hospital or other).


We enrolled 332 patients (age 73years, IQR 63-81 and GCS 14 points, IQR 11-15, onset-to-admission-time 284 minutes, IQR 111-708minutes) of whom 101 patients (35%) had lobar haematoma. Mode of referral was stroke code in 129 patients (38%), transfer from other hospital in 143 patients (43%) and arrival by other means in 60 patients (18%). Overall, 143 of 216 (66%) patients with systolic blood pressure >150mmHG received IV antihypertensive and 67 of 76 (88%) on therapeutic oral anticoagulation received prothrombin complex concentrate treatment (PCC). Forty-six patients (14%) received any neurosurgical intervention within 3 hours of admission. Median treatment times from admission to first IV-antihypertensive treatment was 38 minutes (IQR 18-72minutes) and 59 minutes (IQR 37-111 minutes) for PCC, with significant differences according to mode of referral (p<0.001) but not early arrival (≤6hours of onset, p=0.92). The median time in the emergency department was 139 minutes (IQR 85-220 minutes) and among patients with elevated blood pressure, only 44% achieved a successful control (<140mmHG) during ED stay. In multivariate analysis, code ICH concordant treatment was associated with significantly lower odds for in-hopsital mortality (aOR 0.30, 95%CI 0.12-0.73, p=0.008) and a non-significant trends towards better functional outcome measured using the modified Rankin scale score at 3 months (aOR for ordinal shift 0.54 95%CI 0.26-1.12, p=0.097).


Uptake of hyperacute therapies for ICH treatment in the ED is heterogeneous. Treatment delays are short but not all patients achieve treatment targets during ED stay. Code ICH concordant treatment may improve clinical outcomes. Further improvements seem achievable advocating for a "code ICH" to streamline acute treatments.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurosurgery
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Anaesthesiology (DINA) > University Emergency Center
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Health Sciences (GHS)

UniBE Contributor:

Bettschen, Eva Maria, Siepen, Bernhard Matthias, Göldlin, Martina Béatrice, Müller, Madlaine, Bücke, Philipp Jonas, Prange, Ulrike, Meinel, Thomas Raphael, Drop, Boudewijn Roderick Hinne, Bervini, David, Dobrocky, Tomas, Kaesmacher, Johannes, Exadaktylos, Aristomenis, Sauter, Thomas Christian, Volbers, Bastian, Arnold, Marcel, Jung, Simon, Fischer, Urs Martin, Z'Graggen, Werner Josef, Seiffge, David Julian


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Chantal Kottler

Date Deposited:

09 Feb 2024 14:04

Last Modified:

09 Feb 2024 14:04

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