Biomechanical Effects of Hindfoot Alignment in Supination External Rotation Malleolar Fractures: A Human Cadaveric Model.

Seidel, Angela; Chidda, Amal; Perez, Virginie; Krause, Fabian; Zderic, Ivan; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Lalonde, Karl-Andre; Meulenkamp, Brad (2024). Biomechanical Effects of Hindfoot Alignment in Supination External Rotation Malleolar Fractures: A Human Cadaveric Model. (In Press). Foot & ankle international(10711007241241075), p. 10711007241241075. Sage 10.1177/10711007241241075

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Pressure distribution in the ankle joint is known to be dependent on various factors, including hindfoot alignment. We seek to evaluate how hindfoot alignment affects contact pressures in the ankle joint in the setting of supination external rotation (SER) type ankle fractures.


SER fractures were created in 10 human cadaver lower extremity specimens, simulating progressive stages of injury: without fracture (step 0), SER fracture and intact deltoid ligament (step 1), superficial deltoid ligament disruption (step 2), and deep deltoid ligament disruption (step 3). At each step, varus and valgus alignment was simulated by displacing the calcaneal tuberosity 7 mm medial or lateral. Each limb was axially loaded following each osteotomy at a static load of 350 N. The center of force (COF), contact area (CA), and peak contact pressure (PP) under load were measured, and radiographs of the ankle mortise were taken to analyze the medial clear space (MCS) and talar tilt (TT).


The COF (5.3 mm, P = .030) and the CA (-188.4 mm2, P = .015) changed in step 3 in the valgus hindfoot alignment compared to baseline parameters, indicating the importance of deep deltoid ligament integrity in maintaining normal ankle joint contact stress in the valgus hindfoot. These changes were not seen in the setting of varus alignment (COF: 2.3 mm, P = .059; CA -121 mm2, P = .133). PP were found to not change significantly in either varus or valgus (varus: -4.9 N, P = .132; valgus: -4 N, P = .464).The MCS demonstrated widening in step 3 compared to step 2 (0.7 mm, P = .020) in both varus and valgus hindfoot. The TT increased significantly in step 3 in the valgus hindfoot (2.8 degrees, P = .020) compared to step 0.


SER-IV fractures with valgus hindfoot alignment showed significant changes in pressure distribution and radiographic parameters when compared to SER-IV fractures with varus hindfoot alignment.


Based on this cadaver modeling study, patients with SERIV fracture with varus hindfoot alignment and complete deltoid ligament lesion may not need fracture fixation, whereas those with valgus hindfoot alignment likely need fracture fixation.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Orthopaedic, Plastic and Hand Surgery (DOPH) > Clinic of Orthopaedic Surgery

UniBE Contributor:

Krause, Fabian


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

15 Apr 2024 16:11

Last Modified:

16 Apr 2024 00:17

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

SER alignment ankle cadaver study calcaneus osteotomy correction fracture trauma


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