Geriatric Pain Measure short form: development and initial evaluation

Blozik, Eva; Stuck, Andreas E; Niemann, Steffen; Ferrell, Bruce A; Harari, Danielle; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Gillmann, Gerhard; Beck, John C; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M (2007). Geriatric Pain Measure short form: development and initial evaluation. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(12), pp. 2045-2050. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01474.x

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OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a short form of the 24-item Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM) for use in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Derivation and validation of a 12-item version of the GPM in a European and an independent U.S. sample of community-dwelling older adults. SETTING: Three community-dwelling sites in London, United Kingdom; Hamburg, Germany; Solothurn, Switzerland; and two ambulatory geriatrics clinics in Los Angeles, California. PARTICIPANTS: European sample: 1,059 community-dwelling older persons from three sites (London, UK; Hamburg, Germany; Solothurn, Switzerland); validation sample: 50 persons from Los Angeles, California, ambulatory geriatric clinics. MEASUREMENTS: Multidimensional questionnaire including self-reported demographic and clinical information. RESULTS: Based on item-to-total scale correlations in the European sample, 11 of 24 GPM items were selected for inclusion in the short form. One additional item (pain-related sleep problems) was included based on clinical relevance. In the validation sample, the Cronbach alpha of GPM-12 was 0.92 (individual subscale range 0.77-0.92), and the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between GPM-12 and the original GPM was 0.98. The correlation between the GPM-12 and the McGill Pain Questionnaire was 0.63 (P<.001), similar to the correlation between the original GPM and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (Pearson r=0.63; P<.001). Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the GPM-12 covers three subfactors (pain intensity, pain with ambulation, disengagement because of pain). CONCLUSION: The GPM-12 demonstrated good validity and reliability in these European and U.S. populations of older adults. Despite its brevity, the GPM-12 captures the multidimensional nature of pain in three subscales. The self-administered GPM-12 may be useful in the clinical assessment process and management of pain and in pain-related research in older persons.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of General Internal Medicine (DAIM) > Geriatric Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

UniBE Contributor:

Blozik, Eva, Stuck, Andreas, Niemann, Steffen, Gillmann, Gerhard


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health










Factscience Import

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04 Oct 2013 14:53

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:16

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URI: (FactScience: 34570)

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