Influence of the menstrual cycle on the oral microbial flora in women: a case-control study including men as control subjects

Fischer, Carolin C; Persson, Rigmor E; Persson, G Rutger (2008). Influence of the menstrual cycle on the oral microbial flora in women: a case-control study including men as control subjects. Journal of periodontology, 79(10), pp. 1966-73. Chicago, Ill.: American Academy of Periodontology 10.1902/jop.2008.080057

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)

Changes in the levels of female sex hormones during the menstrual cycle may cause cyclic differences in subgingival bacterial colonization patterns. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle cause changes in the oral microbiota. METHODS: Bacterial plaque samples were collected in 20 systemically and periodontally healthy women using no hormonal contraceptives (test group) over a period of 6 weeks. Twenty age-matched systemically and periodontally healthy men were assigned to the control group. Samples were processed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization assay, and 74 species were analyzed. RESULTS: No cyclic pattern of bacterial colonization was identified for any of the 74 species studied in women not using hormonal contraceptives. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) (Y4) was common at the beginning of menstruation (mean: 32%) and increased during the following 2 weeks (36%) in women (P <0.05). No cyclic differences in bacterial presence were found among the men (P values varied between 0.14 and 0.98). Men presented with significantly higher bacterial counts for 40 of 74 species (P <0.001), including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but not Porphyromonas gingivalis (P = 0.15) or Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis) (P = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: During a menstruation period, cyclic variation in the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy women of child-bearing age who were not using oral hormonal contraceptives could not be confirmed. Male control subjects presented with higher levels of many species but also without a cyclic pattern.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Periodontology

UniBE Contributor:

Fischer, Carolin; Persson, Rigmor and Persson, Gösta Rutger




American Academy of Periodontology




Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 15:02

Last Modified:

25 Jan 2017 12:16

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Web of Science ID:


URI: (FactScience: 88775)

Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback