Exogenous surfactant application in a rat lung ischemia reperfusion injury model: effects on edema formation and alveolar type II cells

Dreyer, Niels; Mühlfeld, Christian; Fehrenbach, Antonia; Pech, Thomas; von Berg, Sebastian; Nagib, Ragi; Richter, Joachim; Wittwer, Thorsten; Wahlers, Thorsten; Ochs, Matthias (2008). Exogenous surfactant application in a rat lung ischemia reperfusion injury model: effects on edema formation and alveolar type II cells. Respiratory research, 9, p. 5. London: BioMed Central 10.1186/1465-9921-9-5

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BACKGROUND: Prophylactic exogenous surfactant therapy is a promising way to attenuate the ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury associated with lung transplantation and thereby to decrease the clinical occurrence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, there is little information on the mode by which exogenous surfactant attenuates I/R injury of the lung. We hypothesized that exogenous surfactant may act by limiting pulmonary edema formation and by enhancing alveolar type II cell and lamellar body preservation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exogenous surfactant therapy on the formation of pulmonary edema in different lung compartments and on the ultrastructure of the surfactant producing alveolar epithelial type II cells. METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to a control, Celsior (CE) or Celsior + surfactant (CE+S) group (n = 5 each). In both Celsior groups, the lungs were flush-perfused with Celsior and subsequently exposed to 4 h of extracorporeal ischemia at 4 degrees C and 50 min of reperfusion at 37 degrees C. The CE+S group received an intratracheal bolus of a modified natural bovine surfactant at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight before flush perfusion. After reperfusion (Celsior groups) or immediately after sacrifice (Control), the lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion and processed for light and electron microscopy. Stereology was used to quantify edematous changes as well as alterations of the alveolar epithelial type II cells. RESULTS: Surfactant treatment decreased the intraalveolar edema formation (mean (coefficient of variation): CE: 160 mm3 (0.61) vs. CE+S: 4 mm3 (0.75); p < 0.05) and the development of atelectases (CE: 342 mm3 (0.90) vs. CE+S: 0 mm3; p < 0.05) but led to a higher degree of peribronchovascular edema (CE: 89 mm3 (0.39) vs. CE+S: 268 mm3 (0.43); p < 0.05). Alveolar type II cells were similarly swollen in CE (423 microm3(0.10)) and CE+S (481 microm3(0.10)) compared with controls (323 microm3(0.07); p < 0.05 vs. CE and CE+S). The number of lamellar bodies was increased and the mean lamellar body volume was decreased in both CE groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Intratracheal surfactant application before I/R significantly reduces the intraalveolar edema formation and development of atelectases but leads to an increased development of peribronchovascular edema. Morphological changes of alveolar type II cells due to I/R are not affected by surfactant treatment. The beneficial effects of exogenous surfactant therapy are related to the intraalveolar activity of the exogenous surfactant.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Anatomy > Topographical and Clinical Anatomy
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Anatomy

UniBE Contributor:

Mühlfeld, Christian and Ochs, Matthias

ISSN:

1465-9921

ISBN:

18205928

Publisher:

BioMed Central

Language:

English

Submitter:

Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 15:03

Last Modified:

16 Jan 2015 11:26

Publisher DOI:

10.1186/1465-9921-9-5

PubMed ID:

18205928

Web of Science ID:

000253795900001

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.27562

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/27562 (FactScience: 108853)

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