Prevalence of halitosis in young male adults: a study in swiss army recruits comparing self-reported and clinical data

Bornstein, Michael; Stocker, Bruce L; Seemann, Rainer; Bürgin, Walter Bruno; Lussi, Adrian (2009). Prevalence of halitosis in young male adults: a study in swiss army recruits comparing self-reported and clinical data. Journal of periodontology, 80(1), pp. 24-31. Chicago, Ill.: American Academy of Periodontology 10.1902/jop.2009.080310

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BACKGROUND: Sound epidemiologic data on halitosis are rare. We evaluated the prevalence of halitosis in a young male adult population in Switzerland using a standardized questionnaire and clinical examination. METHODS: Six hundred twenty-six Swiss Army recruits aged 18 to 25 years (mean: 20.3 years) were selected as study subjects. First, a standardized questionnaire focusing on dental hygiene, self-reported halitosis, smoking, and alcohol consumption was filled out by all participants. In the clinical examination, objective values for the presence of halitosis were gathered through an organoleptic assessment of the breath odor and the measurement of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). Additionally, tongue coating, plaque index, and probing depths were evaluated for each recruit. RESULTS: The questionnaire revealed that only 17% of all included recruits had never experienced halitosis. The organoleptic evaluation (grades 0 to 3) identified eight persons with grade 3, 148 persons with grade 2, and 424 persons with grade 1 or 0. The calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient to evaluate the relationship among the three methods of assessing halitosis revealed little to no correlation. The organoleptic score showed high reproducibility (kappa = 0.79). Tongue coating was the only influencing factor found to contribute to higher organoleptic scores and higher VSC values. CONCLUSIONS: Oral malodor seemed to pose an oral health problem for about one-fifth of 20-year-old Swiss males questioned. No correlation between self-reported halitosis and organoleptic or VSC measurements could be detected. Although the organoleptic method described here offers a high reproducibility, the lack of correlation between VSC values and organoleptic scores has to be critically addressed. For further studies assessing new organoleptic scores, a validated index should always be included as a direct control.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology
04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry

UniBE Contributor:

Bornstein, Michael; Seemann, Rainer; Bürgin, Walter Bruno and Lussi, Adrian

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0022-3492

Publisher:

American Academy of Periodontology

Language:

English

Submitter:

Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 15:10

Last Modified:

25 Jan 2017 12:16

Publisher DOI:

10.1902/jop.2009.080310

PubMed ID:

19228086

Web of Science ID:

000262336500003

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.30988

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/30988 (FactScience: 195368)

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