The retina in Parkinson's disease

Archibald, Neil K; Clarke, Michael P; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Burn, David J (2009). The retina in Parkinson's disease. Brain, 132(5), pp. 1128-1145. Oxford: Oxford University Press 10.1093/brain/awp068

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As a more complete picture of the clinical phenotype of Parkinson's disease emerges, non-motor symptoms have become increasingly studied. Prominent among these non-motor phenomena are mood disturbance, cognitive decline and dementia, sleep disorders, hyposmia and autonomic failure. In addition, visual symptoms are common, ranging from complaints of dry eyes and reading difficulties, through to perceptual disturbances (feelings of presence and passage) and complex visual hallucinations. Such visual symptoms are a considerable cause of morbidity in Parkinson's disease and, with respect to visual hallucinations, are an important predictor of cognitive decline as well as institutional care and mortality. Evidence exists of visual dysfunction at several levels of the visual pathway in Parkinson's disease. This includes psychophysical, electrophysiological and morphological evidence of disruption of retinal structure and function, in addition to disorders of ‘higher’ (cortical) visual processing. In this review, we will draw together work from animal and human studies in an attempt to provide an insight into how Parkinson's disease affects the retina and how these changes might contribute to the visual symptoms experienced by patients.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychotherapy

UniBE Contributor:

Mosimann, Urs Peter




Oxford University Press




Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 15:12

Last Modified:

19 Feb 2014 15:25

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URI: (FactScience: 196545)

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