The umbilical cord in Cantrell: Pentalogy or Hexalogy?

Müller Brochut, Anne-Claude; Raio, Luigi; Tutschek, Boris; Surbek, Daniel (2009). The umbilical cord in Cantrell: Pentalogy or Hexalogy? Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology, 34(S1), p. 266. Wiley InterScience 10.1002/uog.7374

Objective: Pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) is a rare congenital defect associated with five midline anomalies. The type of cardiac malformation and the size of the abdominal wall defect is often responsible for the high mortality. Of interest, the embryonic period in which PC develops is similar to that of the umbilical cord’s (UC) formation. The aim of the following study was to investigate the relationship between UC anomalies and PC. Methods: Charts of four cases with PC from 2002–08 were retrospectively reviewed for associated UC anomalies. UC anomalies were defined as single umbilical artery (SUA), short cord (during 1st trimester less than CRL or less than 30cm at term) or atypical UC coiling pattern. Results: We identified four cases: 3 singletons and one monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy with TRAP sequence. All cases showed a normal karyotype. All but one demonstrated the classical pulsatile omphalocele with ectopia cordis and all others anomalies of PC. One case was characterized by a major cranial omphalocele without ectopia cordis and no UC anomaly. This fetus was delivered by Cesarean at term and successfully operated on d1. In all other cases the parents requested ToP. Among the three cases with ectopia cordis, two had a short UC with SUA and one a short three-vessel cord; all these three UC were markedly uncoiled. Conclusions: Our data suggest a strong association between Cantrell and the development of the UC, in particular in cases with ectopia cordis. One might speculate that hemodynamic alterations of the feto-placental blood flow because of the cardiac malformation or structural changes at the umbilical ring (omphalocele) influence the development of the UC. More observations are needed to decide if Cantrell is a ‘‘hexalogy’’ instead of pentalogy.

Item Type:

Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Gynaecology

UniBE Contributor:

Müller Brochut, Anne-Claude, Raio, Luigi, Tutschek, Boris, Surbek, Daniel


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Wiley InterScience




Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 15:13

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:22

Publisher DOI:


URI: (FactScience: 197051)

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