Perioperative metabolic changes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

Jakob, Stephan M; Stanga, Zeno (2010). Perioperative metabolic changes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Nutrition, 26(4), pp. 349-53. New York, N.Y.: Elsevier 10.1016/j.nut.2009.07.014

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Perioperative metabolic changes in cardiac surgical patients are not only induced by tissue injury and extracorporeal circulation per se: the systemic inflammatory response to surgical trauma and extracorporeal circulation, perioperative hypothermia, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses, and drugs and blood products used to maintain cardiovascular function and anesthesia contribute to varying degrees. The pathophysiologic changes include increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure; increased secretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin, and growth hormone; and decreased total tri-iodothyronine levels. Easily measurable metabolic consequences of these changes include hyperglycemia, hyperlactatemia, increased aspartate, glutamate and free fatty acid concentrations, hypokalemia, increased production of inflammatory cytokines, and increased consumption of complement and adhesion molecules. Nutritional risk before elective cardiac surgery-defined as preoperative unintended pathologic weight loss/low amount of food intake in the preceding week or low body mass index-is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Improvements in surgical techniques, anesthesia, and perioperative management have been designed to minimize the stressful stimulus to catabolism, thereby slowing the wasting process to the point where much less nutrition is required to meet metabolic requirements. Early nutrition in cardiac surgery is safe and well tolerated.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Clinical Nutrition
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Anaesthesiology (DINA) > Clinic of Intensive Care
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of General Internal Medicine (DAIM) > Clinic of General Internal Medicine > Centre of Competence for General Internal Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Jakob, Stephan and Stanga-Nodari, Zeno


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:08

Last Modified:

01 Oct 2020 13:02

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URI: (FactScience: 197592)

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