Body composition and fuel metabolism after kidney grafting

Steiger, U; Lippuner, K; Jensen, E X; Montandon, A; Jaeger, P; Horber, F F (1995). Body composition and fuel metabolism after kidney grafting. European journal of clinical investigation EJCI, 25(11), pp. 809-16. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell 10.1111/j.1365-2362.1995.tb01689.x

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Kidney transplant patients display decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. Whether this altered body composition is due to glucocorticoid induced altered fuel metabolism is unclear. To answer this question, 16 kidney transplant patients were examined immediately after kidney transplantation (12 +/- 4 days, mean +/- SEM) and then during months 2, 5, 11 and 16, respectively, by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W) and indirect calorimetry. Results were compared with those of 16 age, sex and body mass index matched healthy volunteers examined only once. All patients received dietary counselling with a step 1 diet of the American Heart Association and were advised to restrict their caloric intake to the resting energy expenditure plus 30%. Immediately after transplantation, lean mass of the trunk was higher by 7 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) and that of the limbs was lower by more than 10% (P < 0.01) in patients than in controls. In contrast, no difference in fat mass and resting energy expenditure could be detected between patients and controls. During the 16 months of observation, total fat mass increased in male (+4.9 +/- 1.5 kg), but not in female patients (0.1 +/- 0.8 kg). The change in fat mass observed in men was due to an increase in all subregions of the body analysed (trunk, arms+legs as well as head+neck), whereas in women only an increase in head+neck by 9 +/- 2% (P = 0.05) was detected. Body fat distribution remained unchanged in both sexes over the 16 months of observation. Lean mass of the trunk mainly decreased between days 11 and 42 (P < 0.01) and remained stable thereafter. After day 42, lean mass of arms and legs (mostly striated muscle) and head+neck progressively increased over the 14 months of observation by 1.6 +/- 0.6 kg (P < 0.05) and 0.4 +/- 0.1 kg (P < 0.01), respectively. Resting energy expenditure was similar in controls and patients at 42 days (30.0 +/- 0.7 vs. 31.0 +/- 0.9 kcal kg-1 lean mass) and did not change during the following 15 months of observation. However, composition of fuel used to sustain resting energy expenditure in the fasting state was altered in patients when compared with normal subjects, i.e. glucose oxidation was higher by more than 45% in patients (P < 0.01) during the second month after grafting, but gradually declined (P < 0.01) over the following 15 months to values similar to those observed in controls. Protein oxidation was elevated in renal transplant patients on prednisone at first measurement, a difference which tended to decline over the study period. In contrast to glucose and protein oxidation, fat oxidation was lower in patients 42 days after grafting (P < 0.01), but increased by more than 100% reaching values similar to those observed in controls after 16 months of study. Mean daily dose of prednisone per kg body weight correlated with the three components of fuel oxidation (r > 0.93, P < 0.01), i.e. protein, glucose and fat oxidation. These results indicate that in prednisone treated renal transplant patients fuel metabolism is regulated in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, dietary measures, such as caloric and fat intake restriction as well as increase of protein intake, can prevent muscle wasting as well as part of the usually observed fat accumulation. Furthermore, the concept of preferential upper body fat accumulation as consequence of prednisone therapy in renal transplant patients has to be revised.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Orthopaedic, Plastic and Hand Surgery (DOPH) > Clinic of Osteoporosis

UniBE Contributor:

Lippuner, Kurt

ISSN:

1365-2362

Publisher:

Wiley-Blackwell

Language:

English

Submitter:

Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 15:24

Last Modified:

13 Nov 2014 16:28

Publisher DOI:

10.1111/j.1365-2362.1995.tb01689.x

PubMed ID:

8582445

Web of Science ID:

A1995TE26000003

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/37881 (FactScience: 212068)

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