Nociceptive trigeminal reflexes in non-sedated horses

Veres, Kata; Leandri, M.; Spadavecchia, Claudia (2012). Nociceptive trigeminal reflexes in non-sedated horses. Veterinary journal, 191(1), pp. 101-7. Amsterdam: Elsevier 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.03.022

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)

Electrically induced reflexes can be used to investigate the physiology and pathophysiology of the trigeminal system in humans. Similarly, the assessment of the trigemino-cervical (TCR) and blink reflexes (BR) may provide a new diagnostic tool in horses. The aim of this study was to evoke nociceptive trigeminal reflexes and describe the electrophysiological characteristics in non-sedated horses. The infraorbital (ION) and supraorbital nerves (SON) were stimulated transcutaneously in 10 adult Warmblood horses in separate sessions using train-of-five electrical pulses. The current was increased gradually until the TCR threshold was found. The stimulus-response curve of the TCR was evaluated. At the same time as TCR, the BR response was also assessed. Surface electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded from the orbicularis oculi, splenius and cleidomastoideus muscles. Latency, duration, amplitude of the reflexes and behavioural responses were analysed. Noxious electrical stimulation of the ION or SON evoked reflex EMG responses, with similar features regardless of the nerve that had been stimulated. Stimulations of increasing intensity elicited reflexes of increasing amplitude and decreasing latency, accompanied by stronger behavioural reactions, therefore confirming the nociceptive nature of the TCR. These findings provide a reference for the assessment of dysfunction of the equine trigeminal system.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine (DKV) > DKV - Anaesthesiology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine (DKV)

UniBE Contributor:

Veres, Kata and Spadavecchia, Claudia


600 Technology > 630 Agriculture








Helene Rohrbach Rüegsegger

Date Deposited:

15 Nov 2013 14:12

Last Modified:

29 Dec 2014 21:09

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Animals, Blinking/*physiology, Electric Stimulation, Electromyography/veterinary, Female, Horses/*physiology, Male Trigeminal Nerve/*physiology


Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback