EEG microstate duration and syntax in acute, medication-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: a multi-center study

Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L.; Galderisi, Silvana; Herrmann, Werner M.; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Koukkou, Martha; Mucci, Armida; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.; Saito, Naomi; Wackermann, Jiri; Winterer, Georg; Koenig, Thomas (2005). EEG microstate duration and syntax in acute, medication-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: a multi-center study. Psychiatry research: Neuroimaging, 138(2), pp. 141-156. Elsevier 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2004.05.007

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In young, first-episode, productive, medication-naive patients with schizophrenia, EEG microstates (building blocks of mentation) tend to be shortened. Koenig et al. [Koenig, T., Lehmann, D., Merlo, M., Kochi, K., Hell, D., Koukkou, M., 1999. A deviant EEG brain microstate in acute, neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenics at rest. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 249, 205–211] suggested that shortening concerned specific microstate classes. Sequence rules (microstate concatenations, syntax) conceivably might also be affected. In 27 patients of the above type and 27 controls, from three centers, multichannel resting EEG was analyzed into microstates using k-means clustering of momentary potential topographies into four microstate classes (A–D). In patients, microstates were shortened in classes B and D (from 80 to 70 ms and from 94 to 82 ms, respectively), occurred more frequently in classes A and C, and covered more time in A and less in B. Topography differed only in class B where LORETA tomography predominantly showed stronger left and anterior activity in patients. Microstate concatenation (syntax) generally were disturbed in patients; specifically, the class sequence A→C→D→A predominated in controls, but was reversed in patients (A→D→C→A). In schizophrenia, information processing in certain classes of mental operations might deviate because of precocious termination. The intermittent occurrence might account for Bleuler's “double bookkeeping.” The disturbed microstate syntax opens a novel physiological comparison of mental operations between patients and controls.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy > Psychiatric Neurophysiology [discontinued]

UniBE Contributor:

Koukkou-Lehmann, Martha, König, Thomas


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Thomas König

Date Deposited:

14 Aug 2014 16:44

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:27

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Human EEG microstates, EEG spatial analysis, Microstate transition probabilities, State dependency




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