Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) functional imaging in acute, neuroleptic-naive, first-episode, productive schizophrenia

Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.; Lehmann, Dietrich; Koenig, Thomas; Kochi, Kieko; Merlo, Marco C. G.; Hell, Daniel; Koukkou, Martha (1999). Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) functional imaging in acute, neuroleptic-naive, first-episode, productive schizophrenia. Psychiatry research: Neuroimaging, 90(3), pp. 169-179. Elsevier 10.1016/S0925-4927(99)00013-X

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Functional imaging of brain electrical activity was performed in nine acute, neuroleptic-naive, first-episode, productive patients with schizophrenia and 36 control subjects. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA, three-dimensional images of cortical current density) was computed from 19-channel of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity obtained under resting conditions, separately for the different EEG frequencies. Three patterns of activity were evident in the patients: (1) an anterior, near-bilateral excess of delta frequency activity; (2) an anterior-inferior deficit of theta frequency activity coupled with an anterior-inferior left-sided deficit of alpha-1 and alpha-2 frequency activity; and (3) a posterior-superior right-sided excess of beta-1, beta-2 and beta-3 frequency activity. Patients showed deviations from normal brain activity as evidenced by LORETA along an anterior-left-to-posterior-right spatial axis. The high temporal resolution of EEG makes it possible to specify the deviations not only as excess or deficit, but also as inhibitory, normal and excitatory. The patients showed a dis-coordinated brain functional state consisting of inhibited prefrontal/frontal areas and simultaneously overexcited right parietal areas, while left anterior, left temporal and left central areas lacked normal routine activity. Since all information processing is brain-state dependent, this dis-coordinated state must result in inadequate treatment of (externally or internally generated) information.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy > Psychiatric Neurophysiology [discontinued]

UniBE Contributor:

König, Thomas, Merlo, Christoph Marco, Koukkou-Lehmann, Martha


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Thomas König

Date Deposited:

18 Aug 2014 08:58

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:27

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Electroencephalography, Functional neuroimaging, Excitatory and inhibitory neuronal activity





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