Facts and myths regarding the maxillary midline frenum and its treatment: a systematic review of the literature

Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Sculean, Anton; Katsaros, Christos; Bornstein, Michael (2013). Facts and myths regarding the maxillary midline frenum and its treatment: a systematic review of the literature. Quintessence international, 44(2), pp. 177-87. Quintessenz Verlags-GmbH 10.3290/j.qi.a28925

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OBJECTIVE To systematically review the current literature on the maxillary midline frenum and associated conditions and complications, as well as the recommended treatment options. METHOD AND MATERIALS A detailed MEDLINE database search was carried out to provide evidence about the epidemiology, associated pathologies, and treatment options regarding the maxillary frenum. Of the 206 initially identified articles, 48 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS The maxillary frenum is highly associated with a number of syndromes and developmental abnormalities. A hypertrophic frenum may be involved in the etiology of the midline diastema. There is also a tendency by orthodontists to suggest posttreatment removal of the frenum (frenectomy). Studies on the cause of gingival recession due to the maxillary frenum are inconclusive. An injured frenum in combination with other traumas and doubtful history might point to child abuse. The involvement of hyperplastic frena in the pathogenesis of peri-implant diseases remains uncertain. There seems to be a clinical interest regarding lasers for surgery for treatment of maxillary frena. The superiority of laser treatment in relation to conventional surgical methods has not yet been demonstrated in the literature. CONCLUSION A maxillary frenum is a clinical symptom in numerous syndromic conditions and plays a role in the development of the median midline diastema. Nevertheless, the contribution to gingival recession and peri-implant diseases in the region of the maxillary incisors is rather controversial. Laser techniques are reported as the method of choice for the surgical removal of frena; however, this needs to be substantiated by appropriate prospective controlled studies.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Periodontology
04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology
04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Orthodontics

UniBE Contributor:

Livas, Christos; Sculean, Anton; Katsaros, Christos and Bornstein, Michael

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0033-6572

Publisher:

Quintessenz Verlags-GmbH

Language:

English

Submitter:

Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

14 Feb 2014 15:20

Last Modified:

25 Jan 2017 12:15

Publisher DOI:

10.3290/j.qi.a28925

PubMed ID:

23444184

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/39983

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