A comparative assessment of forces and moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets

Sifakakis, Iosif; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Katsaros, Christos; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph (2013). A comparative assessment of forces and moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets. European journal of orthodontics, 35(1), pp. 82-6. Oxford University Press 10.1093/ejo/cjr048

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The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bracket type on the labiopalatal forces and moments generated in the sagittal plane. Incognito™ lingual brackets (3M Unitek), STb™ lingual brackets (Light Lingual System; ORMCO), and conventional 0.018 inch slot brackets (Gemini; 3M Unitek) were bonded on three identical maxillary acrylic resin models, with a palatally displaced right lateral incisor. The transfer trays for the indirect bonding of the lingual brackets were constructed in certified laboratories. Each model was mounted on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system and ten 0.013 inch CuNiTi wires were used for each bracket type. The wire was ligated with elastomerics and each measurement was repeated once after re-ligation. The labiopalatal forces and the moments in the sagittal plane were recorded on the right lateral incisor. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe pairwise comparisons were used to assess the effect on bracket type on the generated forces and moments. The magnitude of forces ranged from 1.62, 1.27, and 1.81 N for the STb, conventional, and Incognito brackets, respectively; the corresponding moments were 2.01, 1.45, and 2.19 N mm, respectively. Bracket type was a significant predictor of the generated forces (P < 0.001) and moments (P < 0.001). The produced forces were different among all three bracket types, whereas the generated moments differed between conventional and lingual brackets but not between lingual brackets.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Orthodontics

UniBE Contributor:

Pandis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos and Eliades, Theodore


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Oxford University Press




Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

11 Feb 2014 12:02

Last Modified:

27 Apr 2018 09:01

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:






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