# Tracing of patients lost to follow-up and HIV transmission: Mathematical modelling study based on two large ART programmes in Malawi

Estill, Janne; Tweya, Hannock Mukoma; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles; Feldacker, Caryl; Johnson, Leigh F.; Blaser, Nello; Vizcaya, Luisa Salazar; Phiri, Sam; Keiser, Olivia (2014). Tracing of patients lost to follow-up and HIV transmission: Mathematical modelling study based on two large ART programmes in Malawi. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes JAIDS, 65(5), e179-e186. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000075

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Estill JAcquirImmuneDefic 2013.pdf - Accepted Version

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Estill JAcquirImmuneDefic 2014.pdf - Published Version

OBJECTIVES: Treatment as prevention depends on retaining HIV-infected patients in care. We investigated the effect on HIV transmission of bringing patients lost to follow up (LTFU) back into care. DESIGN: Mathematical model. METHODS: Stochastic mathematical model of cohorts of 1000 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), based on data from two clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. We calculated cohort viral load (CVL; sum of individual mean viral loads each year) and used a mathematical relationship between viral load and transmission probability to estimate the number of new HIV infections. We simulated four scenarios: 'no LTFU' (all patients stay in care); 'no tracing' (patients LTFU are not traced); 'immediate tracing' (after missed clinic appointment); and, 'delayed tracing' (after six months). RESULTS: About 440 of 1000 patients were LTFU over five years. CVL (million copies/ml per 1000 patients) were 3.7 (95% prediction interval [PrI] 2.9-4.9) for no LTFU, 8.6 (95% PrI 7.3-10.0) for no tracing, 7.7 (95% PrI 6.2-9.1) for immediate, and 8.0 (95% PrI 6.7-9.5) for delayed tracing. Comparing no LTFU with no tracing the number of new infections increased from 33 (95% PrI 29-38) to 54 (95% PrI 47-60) per 1000 patients. Immediate tracing prevented 3.6 (95% PrI -3.3-12.8) and delayed tracing 2.5 (95% PrI -5.8-11.1) new infections per 1000. Immediate tracing was more efficient than delayed tracing: 116 and to 142 tracing efforts, respectively, were needed to prevent one new infection. CONCLUSION: Tracing of patients LTFU enhances the preventive effect of ART, but the number of transmissions prevented is small.

#### Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

#### Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Infectiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine

#### UniBE Contributor:

Estill, Janne Anton Markus; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles; Blaser, Nello; Salazar, Luisa Paola and Keiser, Olivia

#### Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services

0894-9255

#### Publisher:

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

English

Doris Kopp Heim

#### Date Deposited:

23 Jan 2014 14:38

15 Apr 2015 02:30

#### Publisher DOI:

10.1097/QAI.0000000000000075

24326599

#### BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.40025

#### URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/40025