Clinical trial design for orthodontists

Pandis, Nikolaos; Cobourne, Martyn T (2013). Clinical trial design for orthodontists. Journal of Orthodontics, 40(2), pp. 93-103. British Orthodontic Society 10.1179/1465313313Y.0000000048

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High-quality research should form the basis of all clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials currently provide the gold standard for investigating the effectiveness of treatment interventions and these are increasingly being used in orthodontics. Here we discuss the reasons why this form of investigation provides the most useful evidence for assessing treatment outcome. The methods available to achieve true randomization, a fundamental component in the design of these trials, are also discussed. In addition, we focus on how to minimize bias in clinical research, not only during the design and management of a trial, but also when disseminating results. We focus on the importance of using control groups correctly and describe methods that are available to adequately power a trial. Finally, we emphasise the importance of accurate and transparent reporting, which facilitates correct communication and assessment of the evidence.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Further Contribution)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Orthodontics

UniBE Contributor:

Pandis, Nikolaos


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




British Orthodontic Society




Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

11 Feb 2014 15:47

Last Modified:

25 Jan 2017 12:15

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Randomized controlled trial


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