Gingival fluid cytokine expression and subgingival bacterial counts during pregnancy and postpartum: a case series

Alessandri, Regina; Adriaens, Laurence; Spörri, Stefan; Lang, Niklaus Peter; Persson, Gösta Rutger (2013). Gingival fluid cytokine expression and subgingival bacterial counts during pregnancy and postpartum: a case series. Clinical oral investigations, 17(1), pp. 19-28. Springer-Verlag 10.1007/s00784-012-0674-8

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OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess gingival fluid (GCF) cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, subgingival bacteria, and clinical periodontal conditions during a normal pregnancy to postpartum. MATERIALS AND METHODS Subgingival bacterial samples were analyzed with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. GCF samples were assessed with real-time PCR including five proinflammatory cytokines and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. RESULTS Nineteen pregnant women with a mean age of 32 years (S.D. ± 4 years, range 26-42) participated in the study. Full-mouth bleeding scores (BOP) decreased from an average of 41.2% (S.D. ± 18.6%) at the 12th week of pregnancy to 26.6% (S.D. ± 14.4%) at the 4-6 weeks postpartum (p < 0.001). Between week 12 and 4-6 weeks postpartum, the mean probing pocket depth changed from 2.4 mm (S.D. ± 0.4) to 2.3 mm (S.D. ± 0.3) (p = 0.34). Higher counts of Eubacterium saburreum, Parvimonas micra, Selenomonas noxia, and Staphylococcus aureus were found at week 12 of pregnancy than at the 4-6 weeks postpartum examinations (p < 0.001). During and after pregnancy, statistically significant correlations between BOP scores and bacterial counts were observed. BOP scores and GCF levels of selected cytokines were not related to each other and no differences in GCF levels of the cytokines were observed between samples from the 12th week of pregnancy to 4-6 weeks postpartum. Decreasing postpartum counts of Porphyromonas endodontalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were associated with decreasing levels of Il-8 and Il-1β. CONCLUSIONS BOP decreased after pregnancy without any active periodontal therapy. Associations between bacterial counts and cytokine levels varied greatly in pregnant women with gingivitis and a normal pregnancy outcome. Postpartum associations between GCF cytokines and bacterial counts were more consistent. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Combined assessments of gingival fluid cytokines and subgingival bacteria may provide important information on host response.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Periodontology

UniBE Contributor:

Alessandri, Regina; Adriaens, Laurence; Lang, Niklaus Peter and Persson, Gösta Rutger


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

03 Mar 2014 11:19

Last Modified:

23 Jul 2018 14:36

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





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