In vitro precision of fit of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing titanium and zirconium dioxide bars

Katsoulis, Joannis; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Yates, Douglas M.; Izutani, Naomi; Enkling, Norbert; Blatz, Markus B. (2013). In vitro precision of fit of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing titanium and zirconium dioxide bars. Dental materials, 29(9), pp. 945-953. Elsevier 10.1016/

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Optical scanners combined with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology provide high accuracy in the fabrication of titanium (TIT) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO) bars. The aim of this study was to compare the precision of fit of CAD/CAM TIT bars produced with a photogrammetric and a laser scanner.


Twenty rigid CAD/CAM bars were fabricated on one single edentulous master cast with 6 implants in the positions of the second premolars, canines and central incisors. A photogrammetric scanner (P) provided digitized data for TIT-P (n=5) while a laser scanner (L) was used for TIT-L (n=5). The control groups consisted of soldered gold bars (gold, n=5) and ZrO-P with similar bar design. Median vertical distance between implant and bar platforms from non-tightened implants (one-screw test) was calculated from mesial, buccal and distal scanning electron microscope measurements.


Vertical microgaps were not significantly different between TIT-P (median 16μm; 95% CI 10-27μm) and TIT-L (25μm; 13-32μm). Gold (49μm; 12-69μm) had higher values than TIT-P (p=0.001) and TIT-L (p=0.008), while ZrO-P (35μm; 17-55μm) exhibited higher values than TIT-P (p=0.023). Misfit values increased in all groups from implant position 23 (3 units) to 15 (10 units), while in gold and TIT-P values decreased from implant 11 toward the most distal implant 15.


CAD/CAM titanium bars showed high precision of fit using photogrammetric and laser scanners. In comparison, the misfit of ZrO bars (CAM/CAM, photogrammetric scanner) and soldered gold bars was statistically higher but values were clinically acceptable.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Prosthodontics [discontinued]

UniBE Contributor:

Katsoulis, Joannis, Mericske, Regina, Enkling, Norbert


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

25 Feb 2014 08:46

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:27

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

CAD/CAM Laser scanner, Photogrammetry, Precision of fit, Titanium, Zirconium dioxide




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