Does tin pre-treatment enhance the bond strength of adhesive systems to enamel?

Schlüter, Nadine; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Ganss, Carolina; Lussi, Adrian (2013). Does tin pre-treatment enhance the bond strength of adhesive systems to enamel? Journal of dentistry, 41(7), pp. 642-52. Elsevier Science 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.03.009

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The study investigated the modification of composite-to-enamel bond strength by pre-treatment of enamel with a concentrated, acidic SnCl2-solution.


Six groups of flat human enamel specimens (n=44 per group) were treated as follows: OB-H: H3PO4 etching, Optibond FL application (primer+adhesive; manufacturer's instructions); OB-S: SnCl2 pre-treatment, Optibond FL application (primer+adhesive); OB-HS: H3PO4 etching+SnCl2 pre-treatment, Optibond FL application (primer+adhesive); CF-N: Clearfil SE application (primer+bond; manufacturer's instructions); CF-H: H3PO4 etching, Clearfil SE application (primer+bond); CF-S: SnCl2 pre-treatment, Clearfil SE application (primer+bond). Enamel specimens were then built up with resin composite (Clearfil Majesty Esthetic) and stored (100% humidity, 37 °C, 1 week). μTBS-measurement and failure mode analysis of one-half of the specimens were performed immediately after storage, while the other half was analysed after a thermocycling procedure (8500 cycles; 5 °C and 55 °C; dwell time 30s). Additional specimens were prepared for SEM- and EDX-analysis.


Highest values were measured for OB-H before and after thermocycling, lowest values for CF-N. Compared to OB-H treatment, OB-S treatment reduced μTBS before/after thermocycling by 23%/28% and OB-HS treatment by 8%/24% (except for OB-SH before (n.s.), all p≤0.001 compared to OB-H). In the Clearfil SE treated groups pre-treatment increased μTBS significantly compared to CF-N (before/after: CF-H: +46%/+70%; CF-S: +51%/42%; all p≤0.001).


Pre-treatment with H3PO4 or SnCl2 markedly increased the μTBS of Clearfil SE to enamel. However, thermocycling partly reduced the gain in μTBS obtained by SnCl2 pre-treatment.


The application of an acidic and highly concentrated SnCl2 solution is a good option to increase the μTBS between enamel and a resin composite mediated by an adhesive system containing the multifunctional monomer MDP.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry

UniBE Contributor:

Schlüter, Nadine; Peutzfeldt, Anne and Lussi, Adrian


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Elsevier Science




Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

10 Feb 2014 17:36

Last Modified:

24 Apr 2017 15:21

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:



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