Region Specific Response of Intervertebral Disc Cells to Complex Dynamic Loading: An Organ Culture Study Using a Dynamic Torsion-Compression Bioreactor

Chan, Samantha; Walser, Jochen; Käppeli, Patrick; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Javad; Ferguson, Stephen John; Gantenbein, Benjamin (2013). Region Specific Response of Intervertebral Disc Cells to Complex Dynamic Loading: An Organ Culture Study Using a Dynamic Torsion-Compression Bioreactor. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e72489. United States: Public Library of Science 10.1371/journal.pone.0072489

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<p>The spine is routinely subjected to repetitive complex loading consisting of axial compression, torsion, flexion and extension. Mechanical loading is one of the important causes of spinal diseases, including disc herniation and disc degeneration. It is known that static and dynamic compression can lead to progressive disc degeneration, but little is known about the mechanobiology of the disc subjected to combined dynamic compression and torsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc when subjected to combined dynamic compression and axial torsion or pure dynamic compression or axial torsion using organ culture. We applied four different loading modalities 1. control: no loading (NL), 2. cyclic compression (CC), 3. cyclic torsion (CT), and 4. combined cyclic compression and torsion (CCT) on bovine caudal disc explants using our custom made dynamic loading bioreactor for disc organ culture. Loads were applied for 8 h/day and continued for 14 days, all at a physiological magnitude and frequency. Our results provided strong evidence that complex loading induced a stronger degree of disc degeneration compared to one degree of freedom loading. In the CCT group, less than 10\% nucleus pulposus (NP) cells survived the 14 days of loading, while cell viabilities were maintained above 70\% in the NP of all the other three groups and in the annulus fibrosus (AF) of all the groups. Gene expression analysis revealed a strong up-regulation in matrix genes and matrix remodeling genes in the AF of the CCT group. Cell apoptotic activity and glycosaminoglycan content were also quantified but there were no statistically significant differences found. Cell morphology in the NP of the CCT was changed, as shown by histological evaluation. Our results stress the importance of complex loading on the initiation and progression of disc degeneration.</p>

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute for Surgical Technology & Biomechanics ISTB

UniBE Contributor:

Chan, Samantha; Walser, Jochen; Käppeli, Patrick; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Javad; Ferguson, Stephen John and Gantenbein, Benjamin

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1932-6203

Publisher:

Public Library of Science

Language:

English

Submitter:

Benjamin Gantenbein

Date Deposited:

19 Mar 2014 00:40

Last Modified:

13 Nov 2015 13:38

Publisher DOI:

10.1371/journal.pone.0072489

PubMed ID:

24013824

Uncontrolled Keywords:

research support, non-u.s. gov't

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.43389

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/43389

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