On the use of Cramér-Rao minimum variance bounds for the design of magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments

Bolliger, Christine S.; Boesch, Chris; Kreis, Roland (2013). On the use of Cramér-Rao minimum variance bounds for the design of magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. NeuroImage, 83, pp. 1031-1040. Elsevier 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.07.062

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Localized Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is in widespread use for clinical brain research. Standard acquisition sequences to obtain one-dimensional spectra suffer from substantial overlap of spectral contributions from many metabolites. Therefore, specially tuned editing sequences or two-dimensional acquisition schemes are applied to extend the information content. Tuning specific acquisition parameters allows to make the sequences more efficient or more specific for certain target metabolites. Cramér-Rao bounds have been used in other fields for optimization of experiments and are now shown to be very useful as design criteria for localized MRS sequence optimization. The principle is illustrated for one- and two-dimensional MRS, in particular the 2D separation experiment, where the usual restriction to equidistant echo time spacings and equal acquisition times per echo time can be abolished. Particular emphasis is placed on optimizing experiments for quantification of GABA and glutamate. The basic principles are verified by Monte Carlo simulations and in vivo for repeated acquisitions of generalized two-dimensional separation brain spectra obtained from healthy subjects and expanded by bootstrapping for better definition of the quantification uncertainties.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology > DCR Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology (AMSM)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > Forschungsbereich Pavillon 52 > Abt. Magnetresonanz-Spektroskopie und Methodologie, AMSM
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR)

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences (GCB)

UniBE Contributor:

Bolliger, Christine; Bösch, Christoph Hans and Kreis, Roland


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Christoph Hans Boesch

Date Deposited:

01 May 2014 14:30

Last Modified:

14 Sep 2016 14:22

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Cramér–Rao minimum variance bounds, Quantification, Experiment optimization, GABA, Bootstrapping





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