A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

Machado, Kássio; Rosario, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.; Neto, Augusto; de Souza, José Neuman (2013). A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications. Sensors, 13(2), pp. 1942-1964. Molecular Diversity Preservation International MDPI 10.3390/s130201942

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The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Computer Science (INF) > Communication and Distributed Systems (CDS)
08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Computer Science (INF)

UniBE Contributor:

Lima do Rosario, Denis


000 Computer science, knowledge & systems
500 Science > 510 Mathematics




Molecular Diversity Preservation International MDPI




Dimitrios Xenakis

Date Deposited:

10 Mar 2014 11:34

Last Modified:

01 May 2020 10:47

Publisher DOI:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

energy-efficiency; internet of things; link quality; routing; wireless sensor network





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