2-methiopropamine, a thiopene analogue of metamphetamine: studies on its metabolism abt detectability in the rat and human using

Welter, Jessica; Meyer, Markus R.; Wolf, Ehud; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Kavanagh, Pierce; Maurer, Hans H. (2013). 2-methiopropamine, a thiopene analogue of metamphetamine: studies on its metabolism abt detectability in the rat and human using. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 405(10), pp. 3125-3135. Springer 10.1007/s00216-013-6741-4

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2-Methiopropamine [1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-methylaminopropane, 2-MPA], a thiophene analogue of methamphetamine, is available from online vendors selling "Research chemicals." The first samples were seized by the German police in 2011. As it is a recreational stimulant, its inclusion in routine drug screening protocols should be required. The aims of this study were to identify the phase I and II metabolites of 2-MPA in rat and human urine and to identify the human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in its phase I metabolism. In addition, the detectability of 2-MPA in urine samples using the authors' well-established gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) screening protocols was also evaluated. The metabolites were isolated from rat and human urine samples by solid-Phase extraction without or following enzymatic cleavage of conjugates. The phase I metabolites, following acetylation, were separated and identified by GC-MS and/or liquid chromatography-high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS(n)) and the phase II metabolites by LC-HR-MS(n). The following Major metabolic pathways were proposed: N-demethylation, hydroxylation at the side chain and at the thiophene ring, and combination of these transformations followed by glucuronidation and/or sulfation. CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4
were identified as the major phase I metabolizing enzymes. They were also
involved in the N-demethylation of the analogue methamphetamine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in its ring hydroxylation. Following the administration of a typical user's dose, 2-MPA and its metabolites were identified in rat urine using the authors' GC-MS and the LC-MS(n) screening approaches. Ingestion of 2-MPA could also be detected by both protocols in an authentic human urine sample.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute of Legal Medicine > Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology

UniBE Contributor:

Weinmann, Wolfgang


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Katrin Renfer

Date Deposited:

11 Jun 2014 15:32

Last Modified:

13 May 2020 16:51

Publisher DOI:






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