The “Out of Africa Tribe” (II): Paleolithic warriors with big canoes and protective weapons

Moreno, Eduardo (2013). The “Out of Africa Tribe” (II): Paleolithic warriors with big canoes and protective weapons. Communicative & integrative biology, 6(3), e24145. Landes Bioscience 10.4161/cib.24145

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It is generally difficult to establish a timeline for the appearance of different technologies and tools during human cultural evolution. Here I use stochastic character mapping of discrete traits using human mtDNA phylogenies rooted to the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS) as a model to address this question. The analysis reveals that the ancestral state of Homo sapiens was hunting, using material innovations that included bows and arrows, stone axes and spears. However, around 80,000 y before present, a transition occurred, from this ancestral hunting tradition, toward the invention of protective weapons such as shields, the appearance of ritual fighting as a socially accepted behavior and the construction of war canoes for the fast transport of large numbers of warriors. This model suggests a major cultural change, during the Palaeolithic, from hunters to warriors. Moreover, in the light of the recent Out of Africa Theory, it suggests that the “Out of Africa Tribe” was a tribe of warriors that had developed protective weapons such as shields and used big war canoes to travel the sea coast and big rivers in raiding expeditions.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Further Contribution)


08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Cell Biology

UniBE Contributor:

Moreno, Eduardo


500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
900 History > 930 History of ancient world (to ca. 499)
900 History > 950 History of Asia
900 History > 960 History of Africa
900 History > 990 History of other areas




Landes Bioscience




Eduardo Moreno

Date Deposited:

29 Apr 2014 12:02

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:30

Publisher DOI:





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