Diversity versus disparity and the role of ecological opportunity in a continental bird radiation

Schweizer, Manuel; Hertwig, Stefan; Seehausen, Ole; Ebach, Malte (2014). Diversity versus disparity and the role of ecological opportunity in a continental bird radiation. Journal of biogeography, 41(7), pp. 1301-1312. Wiley 10.1111/jbi.12293

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Aim The Neotropical parrots (Arini) are an unusually diverse group which colonized South America in the Oligocene. The newly invaded Neotropics may have functioned as an underused adaptive zone and provided novel ecological opportunities that facilitated diversification. Alternatively, diversification may have been driven by ecological changes caused by Andean uplift and/or climate change from the Miocene onwards. Our aim was to find out whether Arini diversified in a classical adaptive radiation after their colonization of South America, or whether their diversification occurred later and was influenced by more recent environmental change. Location Neotropics. Methods We generated a time-calibrated phylogeny of more than 80% of all Arini species in order to analyse lineage diversification. This chronogram was also used as the basis for the reconstruction of morphological evolution within Arini using a multivariate ratio analysis of three size measurements. Results We found a concentration of size evolution and partitioning of size niches in the early history of Arini consistent with the process of adaptive radia- tion, but there were no signs of an early burst of speciation or a decrease in speci- ation rates through time. Although we detected no overall temporal shifts in diversification rates, we discovered two young, unexpectedly species-rich clades. Main conclusions Arini show signs of an early adaptive radiation, but we found no evidence of the slowdown in speciation rate generally considered a feature of island or lake radiations. Historical processes and environmental change from the Miocene onwards may have kept diversification rates roughly constant ever since the colonization of the Neotropics. Thus, Arini may not yet have reached equilibrium diversity. The lack of diversity-dependent speciation might be a general feature of adaptive radiations on a continental scale, and diversification processes on continents might therefore not be as ecologically limited as in isolated lakes or on oceanic islands.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Ecology and Evolution (IEE)
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Ecology and Evolution (IEE) > Aquatic Ecology

UniBE Contributor:

Hertwig, Stefan and Seehausen, Ole

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology

ISSN:

0305-0270

Publisher:

Wiley

Language:

English

Submitter:

Marcel Häsler

Date Deposited:

26 Mar 2014 14:10

Last Modified:

20 Dec 2016 11:34

Publisher DOI:

10.1111/jbi.12293

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.45866

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/45866

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