Estimating Annual CO2 Flux for Lutjewad Station Using Three Different Gap-Filling Techniques

Dragomir, Carmelia M.; Klaassen, Wim; Voiculescu, Mirela; Georgescu, Lucian P.; van der Laan, Sander (2012). Estimating Annual CO2 Flux for Lutjewad Station Using Three Different Gap-Filling Techniques. The Scientific World Journal, 2012, pp. 1-10. 10.1100/2012/842893

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Long-term measurements of CO2 flux can be obtained using the eddy covariance technique, but these datasets are affected by gaps which hinder the estimation of robust long-term means and annual ecosystem exchanges. We compare results obtained using three gap-fill techniques: multiple regression (MR), multiple imputation (MI), and artificial neural networks (ANNs), applied to a one-year dataset of hourly CO2 flux measurements collected in Lutjewad, over a flat agriculture area near the Wadden Sea dike in the north of the Netherlands. The dataset was separated in two subsets: a learning and a validation set. The performances of gap-filling techniques were analysed by calculating statistical criteria: coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error
(RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), maximum absolute error (MaxAE), and mean square bias (MSB). The gap-fill accuracy is
seasonally dependent, with better results in cold seasons. The highest accuracy is obtained using ANN technique which is also less
sensitive to environmental/seasonal conditions. We argue that filling gaps directly on measured CO2 fluxes is more advantageous
than the common method of filling gaps on calculated net ecosystem change, because ANN is an empirical method and smaller
scatter is expected when gap filling is applied directly to measurements.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Climate and Environmental Physics

UniBE Contributor:

van der Laan, Sander


500 Science > 530 Physics






Doris Rätz

Date Deposited:

20 Jun 2014 11:29

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:30

Publisher DOI:





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