Deposition History of Polychlorinated Biphenyls to the Lomonosovfonna Glacier, Svalbard: A 209 Congener Analysis

Garmash, Olga; Hermanson, Mark H.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Schwikowski, Margit; Divine, Dmitry; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C. G. (2013). Deposition History of Polychlorinated Biphenyls to the Lomonosovfonna Glacier, Svalbard: A 209 Congener Analysis. Environmental science & technology, 47(21), pp. 12064-12072. ACS Publications 10.1021/es402430t

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A 37 m deep ice core representing 1957–2009 and snow from 2009 to 2010 were collected on the Lomonosovfonna glacier, Svalbard (78.82° N; 17.43° E) and analyzed for 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Congener profiles in all samples showed the prevalence of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls, dominated in all samples by PCB-44, PCB-52, PCB-70 + PCB-74, PCB-87 + PCB-97, PCB-95, PCB-99, PCB-101, and PCB-110. The ∑PCB flux varied over time, but the peak flux, 19 pg cm–2 year–1 from 1957 to 1966, recurred in 1974–1983, 1998–2009, and 2009–2010. The minimum was 5.75 pg cm–2 year–1 in 1989–1998, following a 15 year decline. Peak ∑PCB fluxes here are lower than measured in the Canadian Arctic. The analysis of all 209 congeners revealed that PCB-11 (3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl) was present in all samples, representing 0.9–4.5% of ∑PCB. PCB-11 was not produced in a commercial PCB product, and its source to the Arctic has not been well-characterized; however, our results confirm that the sources to Lomonosovfonna have been active since 1957. The higher fluxes of ∑PCB correspond to periods when average 5 day air mass back trajectories have a frequency of 8–10% and reach 60° N or beyond over northern Europe and western Russia or the North Sea into the U.K

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Departement of Chemistry and Biochemistry

UniBE Contributor:

Schwikowski, Margit

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
500 Science > 540 Chemistry

ISSN:

0013-936X

Publisher:

ACS Publications

Language:

English

Submitter:

Franziska Bornhauser-Rufer

Date Deposited:

04 Apr 2014 21:41

Last Modified:

24 Aug 2015 14:23

Publisher DOI:

10.1021/es402430t

PubMed ID:

24073820

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.46225

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/46225

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