Augmented environments for the targeting of hepatic lesions during image-guided robotic liver surgery

Buchs, Nicolas C.; Volonte, Francesco; Pugin, François; Toso, Christian; Fusaglia, Matteo; Gavaghan, Kate; Majno, Pietro E.; Peterhans, Matthias; Weber, Stefan; Morel, Philippe (2013). Augmented environments for the targeting of hepatic lesions during image-guided robotic liver surgery. Journal of surgical research, 184(2), pp. 825-831. Elsevier 10.1016/j.jss.2013.04.032

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Stereotactic navigation technology can enhance guidance during surgery and enable the precise reproduction of planned surgical strategies. Currently, specific systems (such as the CAS-One system) are available for instrument guidance in open liver surgery. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of such a system for the targeting of hepatic tumors during robotic liver surgery.


Optical tracking references were attached to one of the robotic instruments and to the robotic endoscopic camera. After instrument and video calibration and patient-to-image registration, a virtual model of the tracked instrument and the available three-dimensional images of the liver were displayed directly within the robotic console, superimposed onto the endoscopic video image. An additional superimposed targeting viewer allowed for the visualization of the target tumor, relative to the tip of the instrument, for an assessment of the distance between the tumor and the tool for the realization of safe resection margins.


Two cirrhotic patients underwent robotic navigated atypical hepatic resections for hepatocellular carcinoma. The augmented endoscopic view allowed for the definition of an accurate resection margin around the tumor. The overlay of reconstructed three-dimensional models was also used during parenchymal transection for the identification of vascular and biliary structures. Operative times were 240 min in the first case and 300 min in the second. There were no intraoperative complications.


The da Vinci Surgical System provided an excellent platform for image-guided liver surgery with a stable optic and instrumentation. Robotic image guidance might improve the surgeon's orientation during the operation and increase accuracy in tumor resection. Further developments of this technological combination are needed to deal with organ deformation during surgery.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


10 Strategic Research Centers > ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research > ARTORG Center - Image Guided Therapy

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences (GCB)

UniBE Contributor:

Fusaglia, Matteo, Gerber, Kate, Peterhans, Matthias, Weber, Stefan (B)


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Kate Gerber

Date Deposited:

15 Apr 2014 11:48

Last Modified:

29 Mar 2023 23:33

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Computer surgery, Hepatic mass, Liver resection, Robotic, Virtual reality


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