Influence of Geographical Origin and Ethnicity on Mortality in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Canada, Europe, and the United States

del Amo, J.; Jarrin, I.; May, M.; Dabis, F.; Crane, H.; Podzamczer, D.; Sterling, T. R.; Abgrall, S.; Lampe, F.; Justice, A.; Castagna, A.; Boesecke, C.; Staehelin, Cornelia Johanna; De Wolf, F.; Guest, J.; Mugavero, M. J.; Khaykin, P.; Samji, H.; Ingle, S.; Sterne, J. A. C.; ... (2013). Influence of Geographical Origin and Ethnicity on Mortality in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Canada, Europe, and the United States. Clinical infectious diseases, 56(12), pp. 1800-1809. Oxford University Press 10.1093/cid/cit111

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Our objective was to assess differences in all-cause mortality, as well as AIDS and non-AIDS death rates, among patients started on antiretroviral therapy (ART) according to their geographical origin and ethnicity/race in Europe, Canada, and the United States. METHODS: This was a collaboration of 19 cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects who have initiated ART (ART Cohort Collaboration) between 1998 and 2009. Adjusted mortality hazard ratios (AHRs) were estimated using Cox regression. A competing risk framework was used to estimate adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios for AIDS and non-AIDS mortality. RESULTS: Of 46 648 European patients, 16.3% were from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), 5.1% Caribbean and Latin America, 1.6% North Africa and Middle East, and 1.7% Asia/West; of 1371 patients from Canada, 14.9% were First Nations and 22.4% migrants, and of 7742 patients from North America, 55.5% were African American and 6.6% Hispanic. Migrants from SSA (AHR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], .68-.92) and Asia/West (AHR, 0.62; 95% CI, .41-.92) had lower mortality than Europeans; these differences appeared mainly attributable to lower non-AIDS mortality. Compared with white Canadians, mortality in Canadian First Nations people (AHR, 1.48; 95% CI, .96-2.29) was higher, both for AIDS and non-AIDS mortality rates. Among US patients, when compared with whites, African Americans had higher AIDS and non-AIDS mortality, and hazard ratios for all-cause mortality increased with time on ART. CONCLUSIONS: The lower mortality observed in migrants suggests "healthy migrant" effects, whereas the higher mortality in First Nations people and African Americans in North America suggests social inequality gaps. KEYWORDS: HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, ethnic minorities, migrants Comment in Addressing disparities in HIV mortality: antiretroviral therapy is necessary but not sufficient. [Clin Infect Dis. 2013]

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Infectiology

UniBE Contributor:

Staehelin, Cornelia Johanna

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1058-4838

Publisher:

Oxford University Press

Language:

English

Submitter:

Annelies Luginbühl

Date Deposited:

10 Jun 2014 13:56

Last Modified:

19 Oct 2015 11:16

Publisher DOI:

10.1093/cid/cit111

Uncontrolled Keywords:

HIV infection, migrants, ethnic minorities, antiretroviral therapy

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.46996

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/46996

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