Evidence for distinct modes of solar activity

Usoskin, I. G.; Hulot, G.; Gallet, Y.; Roth, Raphael; Licht, A.; Joos, Fortunat; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Thébault, E.; Khokhlov, A. (2014). Evidence for distinct modes of solar activity. Astronomy and astrophysics, 562(L10), pp. 1-4. EDP Sciences 10.1051/0004-6361/201423391

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The Sun shows strong variability in its magnetic activity, from Grand minima to Grand maxima, but the nature of the variability is not fully understood, mostly because of the insufficient length of the directly observed solar activity records and of uncertainties related to long-term reconstructions. Here we present a new adjustment-free reconstruction of solar activity over three millennia and study its different modes.

Methods. We present a new adjustment-free, physical reconstruction of solar activity over the past three millennia, using the latest verified carbon cycle, 14C production, and archeomagnetic field models. This great improvement allowed us to study different modes of solar activity at an unprecedented level of details.

Results. The distribution of solar activity is clearly bi-modal, implying the existence of distinct modes of activity. The main regular activity mode corresponds to moderate activity that varies in a relatively narrow band between sunspot numbers 20 and 67. The existence of a separate Grand minimum mode with reduced solar activity, which cannot be explained by random fluctuations of the regular mode, is confirmed at a high confidence level. The possible existence of a separate Grand maximum mode is also suggested, but the statistics is too low to reach a confident conclusion.

Conclusions. The Sun is shown to operate in distinct modes – a main general mode, a Grand minimum mode corresponding to an inactive Sun, and a possible Grand maximum mode corresponding to an unusually active Sun. These results provide important constraints for both dynamo models of Sun-like stars and investigations of possible solar influence on Earth’s climate.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


10 Strategic Research Centers > Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR)
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Climate and Environmental Physics

UniBE Contributor:

Roth, Raphael and Joos, Fortunat


500 Science > 530 Physics
500 Science > 550 Earth sciences & geology




EDP Sciences




Doris Rätz

Date Deposited:

25 Sep 2014 15:31

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:31

Publisher DOI:






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