Electrodes for Long-Term Esophageal Electrocardiography

Niederhauser, T.; Häberlin, Andreas; Marisa, T.; Jungo, M.; Goette, J.; Jacomet, M.; Abacherli, R.; Vogel, R. (2013). Electrodes for Long-Term Esophageal Electrocardiography. IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering, 60(9), pp. 2576-2584. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE 10.1109/TBME.2013.2261067

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)

The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


10 Strategic Research Centers > ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research > ARTORG Center - Cardiovascular Engineering (CVE)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Cardiology
10 Strategic Research Centers > ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research > ARTORG Center - Cardiovascular Engineering (CVE) > ARTORG Center - Cardiovascular Engineering (Blood Vessel)

UniBE Contributor:

Niederhauser, Thomas, Häberlin, Andreas David Heinrich, Marisa, Thanks, Jungo, Michael, Götte, Josef, Vogel, Rolf


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology




Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE




Francesco Clavica

Date Deposited:

09 Apr 2014 21:52

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:32

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback