Reference Values and Factors Associated With Renal Resistive Index in a Family-Based Population Study

Ponte, Belén; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Eisenberger, Ute; Guessous, Idris; Rousson, Valentin; Mohaupt, Markus G.; Alwan, Heba; Ehret, Georg; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred; Staessen, Jan A.; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Bochud, Murielle (2014). Reference Values and Factors Associated With Renal Resistive Index in a Family-Based Population Study. Hypertension, 63(1), pp. 136-142. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02321

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Increased renal resistive index (RRI) has been recently associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular or renal outcomes in patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. However, reference values in the general population and information on familial aggregation are largely lacking. We determined the distribution of RRI, associated factors, and heritability in a population-based study. Families of European ancestry were randomly selected in 3 Swiss cities. Anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. A renal Doppler ultrasound was performed, and RRI was measured in 3 segmental arteries of both kidneys. We used multilevel linear regression analysis to explore the factors associated with RRI, adjusting for center and family relationships. Sex-specific reference values for RRI were generated according to age. Heritability was estimated by variance components using the ASSOC program (SAGE software). Four hundred women (mean age±SD, 44.9±16.7 years) and 326 men (42.1±16.8 years) with normal renal ultrasound had mean RRI of 0.64±0.05 and 0.62±0.05, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, RRI was positively associated with female sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. We observed an inverse correlation with diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Age had a nonlinear association with RRI. We found no independent association of RRI with diabetes mellitus, hypertension treatment, smoking, cholesterol levels, or estimated glomerular filtration rate. The adjusted heritability estimate was 42±8% (P<0.001). In a population-based sample with normal renal ultrasound, RRI normal values depend on sex, age, blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index. The significant heritability of RRI suggests that genes influence this phenotype.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Dermatology, Urology, Rheumatology, Nephrology, Osteoporosis (DURN) > Clinic of Nephrology and Hypertension
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > Unit Childrens Hospital > Forschungsgruppe Nephrologie / Hypertonie

UniBE Contributor:

Ackermann, Daniel; Mohaupt, Markus and Vogt, Bruno


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Lippincott Williams & Wilkins




Daniel Ackermann

Date Deposited:

12 Sep 2014 08:44

Last Modified:

08 Nov 2015 04:50

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

reference values, ultrasonography




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