Smoking, apolipoprotein E genotypes, and mortality (the Ludwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health study).

Grammer, Tanja B; Hoffmann, Michael M; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kleber, Marcus E; Silbernagel, Günther; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; März, Winfried (2013). Smoking, apolipoprotein E genotypes, and mortality (the Ludwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health study). European Heart Journal, 34(17), pp. 1298-1305. Oxford University Press 10.1093/eurheartj/eht001

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AIMS The genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been suggested to modify the effect of smoking on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) in apparently healthy persons. The interaction of these factors in persons undergoing coronary angiography is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS We analysed the association between the APOE-genotype, smoking, angiographic CAD, and mortality in 3263 participants of the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health study. APOE-genotypes were associated with CAD [ε22 or ε23: odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.71; ε24 or ε34 or ε44: OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.89-1.37 compared with ε33] and moderately with cardiovascular mortality [ε22 or ε23: hazard ratio (HR) 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.99; ε33: HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75-1.14 compared with ε24 or ε34 or ε44]. HRs for total mortality were 1.39 (95% CI 0.39-0.1.67), 2.29 (95% CI 1.85-2.83), 2.07 (95% CI 1.64-2.62), and 2.95 (95% CI 2.10-4.17) in ex-smokers, current smokers, current smokers without, or current smokers with one ε4 allele, respectively, compared with never-smokers. Carrying ε4 increased mortality in current, but not in ex-smokers (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.04-2.64 for interaction). These findings applied to cardiovascular mortality, were robust against adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, and consistent across subgroups. No interaction of smoking and ε4 was seen regarding non-cardiovascular mortality. Smokers with ε4 had reduced average low-density lipoprotein (LDL) diameters, elevated oxidized LDL, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. CONCLUSION In persons undergoing coronary angiography, there is a significant interaction between APOE-genotype and smoking. The presence of the ε4 allele in current smokers increases cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Angiology

UniBE Contributor:

Silbernagel, Günther


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Oxford University Press




Catherine Gut

Date Deposited:

08 Jul 2014 10:01

Last Modified:

08 Jul 2014 10:01

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Apolipoprotein E, C-reactive protein, Coronary artery disease, Genotype, Inflammation


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